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Fall 323-Biological Diversity & Endangered Species

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Shannon Gibson

on 13 October 2016

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Transcript of Fall 323-Biological Diversity & Endangered Species

Biodiversity and
Endangered Species

Shannon Gibson, Ph.D.
University of Southern California
Why the Loss of Flora and Fauna?
Broad Scale Processes:
Deforestation
Desertification
Urbanization
Climate Change
Pollution
Other causes:
Habitat fragmentation
Hunting / poaching
Invasive species
Why should humans care?
Debates over Species Loss
Extinction imminent?
Role of global warming?
Effects on human well-being?
Facts about Species Loss
Biodiversity hotspots
a biogeographic region with a significant reservoir of biodiversity that is under threat from humans.
Who to save?!?!
Ecosystem services
Life-saving medicines
Food & energy security
Protection from natural hazards
Spiritual / religious values
Future adaptability
Enjoyment
The Skeptics
Bjorn Lomborg - The "Skeptical Environmentalist"
Danish political scientist, author of "Skeptical Environmentalist" & "Cool it"
Governance Solutions
Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES)
legally binding treaty that provide framework for facilitating domestic legislation to curb trade in endangered species
Establishes a licensing and permit system and protocols for imports
Requirements: designate management/scientific authories; domestic laws prohibiting trade in violation of CITES, penalties for trade; laws allowing confiscation of illegal items.
As of 2002 though 50% of parties lacked 1/4 of the requirements
The UN established 2011-2020 as the Decade of Biodiversity
Convention on Biological Diversity
Adopted at the 1992 Rio Earth Summit, entered into force 1993
Recognizes for first time the biodiversity is the "common concern of humankind"
Three Objectives:
Conservation
Sustainability
Benefit-sharing
Caveat: as an international treaty, the CBD identifies a common problem, sets overall goals and policies and general obligations, and organizes technical and financial cooperation. However, the responsibility for achieving its goals rests largely with the countries themselves.
Nagoya Protocol
Adopted in 2010, not yet entered into force
Provides legal framework for CBD's 3rd objective - benefit sharing
Mechanisms:
Access obligations
Benefit-sharing obligations
Compliance obligations
Cartegena Protocol
Adopted 2000; entered into force 2003
Aims to protect biodiversity from potential risk posed by transboundary movement, handling & use of LMOs created by biotechnology
Advanced Informed Agreement
Biosafety Clearing House
Procedures for handling, packaging & ID
LMOs for Food
is the variability among living organisms from
all sources, including terrestrial, marine, and other aquatic ecosystems
and the ecological complexes of which they are part;
this includes diversity within species, between species, and of
ecosystems.
Defined: "collection of benefits that society enjoys from nature and natural resources"
aids in decision-making
sometimes overly "anthropocentric" - assigns costs and priority in relation to how humans benefit from nature
Debates
"when trade is outlawed, only outlaws trade"
impact on
local livelihoods
input of
rural voices
debate over "sustainable use"
Penalties for
illegal ivory trade
trophy hunting
Resolutions
considered 62 flora/fauna proposals (over 75% passed)
African
grey parrot & pangolins
go from II to I
several controversial
shark & ray species
added to II
proposal to move
elephants
everywhere to I rejected
no special committee to penalize ivory trade was created
trophy hunting continues, but with more restrictions & as development tool
draft decisions on demand reduction created

3 Appendices
Appendix I - endangered, trade only in exceptional circumstances
Appendix II -could become endangered, sets controls/quotas
Appendix III - domestic regulation
"a game changer"
"one of the most successful CoPs ever for wildlife"
Largest ever - 158 nations represented
largest ever agenda
Full transcript