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Domestic Violence

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on 18 September 2013

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Transcript of Domestic Violence

DOMESTIC VIOLENCE
Family & Childrens Nursing
Aimee Stewart
Emma Pedersen
Russell Marsh
Jenny Le
Sarah Nguyen
Final Destination
Contents
What is Domestic Violence & what types of violence are there
What are the contributing factors to domestic violence
The effects of domestic violence on children
Detecting domestic violence in families and early childhood
How can we prevent domestic violence and what services can we use to maintain family well being
Contributing factors to domestic violence
Domination of the sexes
-Male or Female sense of domination over the other sex.
-Can be caused by jealousy, low-self esteem, recessive anger or a partner feeling inferior due to educational, or socio-economical aspects.
-Religious beliefs can also influence domestic violence as scriptures such as the Koran and Torah encourage the women to submit to male dominance.
-Children exposed to this behavior of domination are more likely to be victims in future as they have grown up to believe that violent behavior is normal.
Socio-Econimcal Status
-Socio-Economic status impacts on families well being and security.
-Lack of access to health services, food, housing security and living necessities can be a contributor to domestic violence
-Negative work related stress causing emotional distress within families.
-Lack of income potentially contributes to physical, emotional and sexual abuse within families
DRUG AND ALCOHOL ABUSE
-Using their addiction or substance use as an excuse for violent behaviour as alcohol influences or increases one's aggressive response.
-Substance abuse can be a result of domestic violence.
-Drugs and Alcohol can be used as a form of "escape".
-Common excuses include "I don't remember doing that, i was drunk"
Domestic violence involves behaviors such as violent, abusive or intimidating that is carried out by either partner, carer or a family member.
Domestic violence can also be referred to as intimate partner violence. This can be shown through many different forms such as; physical, emotional, economic, social and spiritual.
-Some of the reasons that domestic violence occurs is to control, dominate or create fear onto the person that someone is abusing.
What is Domestic Violence?
who does it affect?
Domestic violence can affect anyone in the community and it doesn’t matter on factors such as their gender, sexual identity, age, race, religion, ethnicity, disability and culture.
Types of intimate partner violence
Physical violence:
physical violence is where a partner, carer or family member inflicts pain onto the physical self of a person, and therefore that person results into having bruises and scars. Some of the following actions that are classified as physical violence is :

Pushing, shoving, slapping, punching, biting, kicking,
strangling and choking.
Effects of Domestic Violence on children
Impacts on health professions
Difficulty to give treatment due to loss of trust with adults.
Mental risk assessment.
Depression - can be long term affect if not treated
Anxiety
Trauma symptoms
Increased aggression against peers and adults
Antisocial behavior (Isolation may occur)
Lower social competence
Temperament problems
Low self-esteem - due to negative impact and blames them self for being the cause of it
Mood problems
Loneliness
School difficulties
Exposure to violence may affect their brain development
Emotional violence:
Emotional-
Wearing away a victim’s
self- confidence, sense of self and their
trust in their own perception. One of
the ways emotional abuse can be
portrayed is by intimidation. This will
therefore make the victim feel guilty
and useless. It may be hard to detect if
someone is being emotionally because it
can be unrecognised.
Economic Violence:
Economic violence –
Inappropriate usage of a certain thing for a bad purpose. This can be a real form and it can have many impacts and problems in the long run. Economic abuse can be a number of things such as :

Controlling another partner’s finance, not allowing a partner to work, taking a partner’s money without permission and denying access to finances.
Social violence:
Social violence: a form of violence
in which a partner, carer or
family member prevents the
victim from having contact with
any friends, relatives or any service
providers. A major problem with
social abuse is that restricts the
activities that the victim has and
this results into having a sense of isolation.
Spiritual violence
Being abused about what your opinions and beliefs and therefore it leaves the victim feeling powerless. Some of the ways that spiritual violence can be portrayed is by not allowing the victim have any self-opinions about religions, cultural beliefs and values. This may lead to the victim feeling not worthy enough to be heard.
How can we prevent domestic violence and what community strategies can we use to maintain family well being?
Domestic violence is a "community problem that requires a community response"
(NSW government DFV reform)

2. NSW Police Force
- Monitors domestic and family violence in our community and can hold perpetrators accountable by the use of AVO's and court orders.
- Speak to children at local schools about violence and let them know it's OK to tell someone.

3. Telephone help lines
- Child protection help line
- General public can report unsatisfactory care
of children but are not legally obligated.
- Women's domestic violence court advocacy program

4. Domestic and family violence app: Aurora
- created by Women NSW
- contains emergency contact information
- can be used discreetly to avoid detection



Mandatory Reporting
The NSW children's and young persons (care and protection) Act 1998
- Mandatory reporters are legally obligated to report a child who is at risk of harm.
- They can be any person who is paid or works in a professional capacity with children.
- can include: Health care workers, child welfare or child services, residential services and law enforcement.

Family and community services (previously DoCs)
3 key areas include:
Prevention and early intervention
Child protection
Out of home care/ foster care

Early intervention strategies:
- Parenting programs, child care services, case worker support can decrease risk of isolation.

Child protection:
- looks into reports of neglect and abuse
- family environment investigated

Out of home/ foster care:
- Last strategy or decision to remove child(s) from parents care
- Must have court evidence of neglect or abuse.
WARNING
This presentation contains content and images which may be distressing to the audience. We apologize in advance.
Community strategies:

1. Community awareness
- Becoming involved in local projects with churches, sporting clubs and local organizations can help detect family breakdown.
Detection of abuse
Harder to determine with toddlers & children.

Look more for patterns.

Explanations that don't fit with injuries.

Pay attention to family interaction.


Just might be something going on here
Do I need to do anything?

What do I need to do?

Can I ask for assistance?
Mandatory Reporting
Do you have to be sure?

Do you have to report?

What about anonymity & confidentiality?

Is it difficult?

References:
Children who are exposed to domestic violence are potentially at risk of developing mental disorders such as anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, or depression and are more likely to be victims/offenders of domestic violence in future rather then children who are not exposed.
[Michell Nunez and Madeline Wordes, 2002]
DID YOU KNOW?
What are the contributing factors to domestic violence references:
1) Toby D Goldsmith, 2013, What Causes Domestic Violence, accessed on the 3rd of September 2013, < http://psychcentral.com/lib/what-causes-domestic-violence/000344>
2) Roxanne Dryden-Edwards, MD, 2013, What are the causes or risk factors for intimate partner violence, accessed on the 4th of September 2013, < http://www.medicinenet.com/domestic_violence/page3.htm#what_are_the_causes_or_risk_factors_for_intimate_partner_violence>
3) David A Wolfe, 2013, Underlying Causes of Domestic Violence, accessed on the 4th of September 2013, < http://futureofchildren.org/publications/journals/article/index.xml?journalid=47&articleid=228&sectionid=1495>
Michell Nunez and Madeline Wordes, 2002, Our Vulnerable Teenagers: Their Victimization, Its Consequences, and Directions for Prevention and Intervention, accessed on 5th of Sept 2013, http://www.victimsofcrime.org/our-programs/other-projects/youth-initiative/interventions-for-black-children's-exposure-to-violence/black-children-exposed-to-violence
- Children are more vulnerable to domestic violence
-Domestic Violence affects children as it can impact on their mental and physical development.
-The contributing factors to domestic violence which will be discussed include socio-economical status, domination of the sexes, and drug and alcohol abuse.
How can we prevent domestic violence?
• NSW Government NSW Police Force, updated 7 September 2012, What is domestic and family violence? , Viewed 1st September 2013, http://www.police.nsw.gov.au/community_issues/domestic__and__family_violence/about_domestic__and__family_violence
• NSW Government: NSW Legislation, updated 12th September 2013, Children and Young Persons (Care and Protection) Act 1998 No 157, Viewed 28th August 2013, http://www.legislation.nsw.gov.au/maintop/view/inforce/act+157+1998+cd+0+N
• NSW Government: Family and Community Services, n.d, Our Services, Viewed 1st September 2013, http://www.community.nsw.gov.au/docs_menu/about_us/our_services.html
• NSW Government: Family and Community Services, n.d, Brighter Futures Program, Viewed 1st September 2013 http://www.community.nsw.gov.au/docs_menu/for_agencies_that_work_with_us/our_funding_programs/brighter_futures_program.html
• NSW Government n.d, Preventing domestic and family violence; Discussion paper, Viewed 28 August 2013, http://engage.haveyoursay.nsw.gov.au/document/show/961
• NSW Government: Family and Community Services: Women NSW, 2012, Domestic and Family Violence App, Viewed 17th September 2013 http://www.women.nsw.gov.au/violence_prevention/domestic_and_family_violence_app

Brighter Futures Program
Intervention program designed for children/ infants under 9 years by Family and community services
Looks at children and families affected by:
Domestic violence
Drug and alcohol issues
Mental health concerns
Focused on expectant mothers and children less than 3 years old
Caseworkers can provide:
advice on parenting
drug and alcohol referrals
Child development programs eg speech therapy.
References
What is Domestic Violence? What types of Violences are there?
• Domestic Violence NSW-domestic violence 2013.
http://www.dvnsw.org.au/html/domesticViolence3.htm
Viewed on 17/09/2013
• Domestic Violence Legal Service. 2013
http://www.womenslegalnsw.asn.au/our-services/domestic-violence-legal-service.html
Viewed on 17/09/2013
• Domestic & Family Violence- NSW Police Online.2013
http://www.police.nsw.gov.au/community_issues/domestic_and_family_violence
Viewed on 17/09/2013
• Verbal abuse can leave scars-body+soul 2013
http://www.bodyandsoul.com.au/sex+relationships/relationships/verbal+abuse+can+leave+scars+,7587
Viewed on 17/09/2013

Effects of Domestic Violence on children & Impact on Health Workers
Richards, K 2011, Trends & Issues in crimes and criminal Justice, Australian Government, Canberra, Viewed 15 September 2013, <http://aic.gov.au/documents/4/1/D/%7b41D5F5FD-2EE9-42C8-8796-1FB4B964806D%7dtandi419.pdf >.
Brown, N 2013, Children at risk of harm, UTS online subject 92319, lecture notes, UTS, Sydney, viewed 16 September 2013, <https://online.uts.edu.au/webapps/portal/frameset.jsp?tab_tab_group_id=_2_1&url=%2Fwebapps%2Fblackboard%2Fexecute%2Flauncher%3Ftype%3DCourse%26id%3D_16470_1%26url%3D>.
2002, Domestic Violence And its Impact On Children’s Development, Department of Community services, Glebe, Viewed 14 September 2013, < http://www.community.nsw.gov.au/docswr/_assets/main/documents/dv_paper.pdf>.

"The percentage of batterers who are under the influence of alcohol when they assault their partners ranges from 48 to 87%, with most research indicating a 60 to 70% rate of alcohol abuse and 13 to 20% rate of drug abuse"
[Buddy.T, 2013]

Dectecting Domestic Violence & Abuse in Families & early childhood & what we do as health professionals?

- ANMAC, c2010, National Competency Standards for the Registered Nurse, Canberra, ACT, Australia

- Children and Young Persons (Care and Protection) Act 1998 (NSW)

- Child Wellbeing & Child Protection – NSW Interagency Guidelines, c2013, Community Services, Ashfield, NSW, Australia, Viewed 13th September 2013 <http://www.community.nsw.gov.au/kts/guidelines/info_exchange/introduction.htm>

- Child Wellbeing & Child Protection – NSW Interagency Guidelines, c2013, Community Services, Ashfield, NSW, Australia, Viewed 13th September 2013 <http://www.community.nsw.gov.au/kts/guidelines/roles/roles_index.htm>

- Child Wellbeing & Child Protection – NSW Interagency Guidelines, c2013, Community Services, Ashfield, NSW, Australia, Viewed 13th September 2013 <http://www.community.nsw.gov.au/kts/guidelines/roles/roles_index.htm>

- Crimes Act 1900 (NSW)

- Keep Them Safe, A Shared Approach to Child Wellbeing, c2013, NSW, Australia, Viewed 13th September 2013,<http://www.keepthemsafe.nsw.gov.au/>

- New South Wales Mandatory Reporters Guide, c2013, Department of Community Services, Ashfield, NSW, Australia
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