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5 Tenets of CRT

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Natalie Amezcua

on 8 March 2016

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Transcript of 5 Tenets of CRT

Critical Race Theory
These 5 tenets of CRT can and should inform theory, research, pedagogy, curriculum and policy.

5 Tenets of CRT
identified by Daniel Solorzano
CRT begins with challenging race by looking at the roots, or ideology of racism and how it is disguised in society normalcy.
disentangle the stereotypes
break away from created social boundaries

Victims of racism find voice within CRT and discover that they are not alone and are part of a community of resistance to the interwoven layers of racialized oppression.
Transdisciplinary approaches:
the parent and persons from two or more disciplines teach, learn, and work together across traditional disciplinary or professional boundaries

1. The intercentricity of race and racism
with other forms of subordination.
puts emphasis on the "explaining" of how U.S society functions based on the concentration and fundamental means of race and racism and how it works
It also recognizes the interwoven layers of racialized subordination based on:
immigration status
phenotype (physical appearance)
and sexuality
Summary: the multiple identities that make up a person is used as a target for subordination and oppression in U.S society.
2.The challenge to dominant ideology: white privilege
CRT refutes the claim that educational institutions make towards and challenges:
and equal opportunity
color blindness
race neutrality
and equal opportunity
Educational institutions, use these "claims" as a camouflauge for self-interest, power and privilege of dominant groups in our society.
3. The commitment to social justice
CRT offers a transformative response to racial, gender and class oppression.

CRT exposes the "'interest-convergence' of civil rights 'gains' in education and works towards the elimination of racism, sexism and poverty."
empowers People of Color as well as other subrodinate groups and communities.
CRT represents a challenge to existing forms of research and scholarship
CRT challenges the way race and racism impacts educational structures and institutions
CRT is a social justice project the works towards liberatiing the school system
CRT is like a template or guide to challenging social inequality
Whose knowledge counts and whose knowledge is discounted? Throughout US history, race and racism have shaped this. In this article the author:
Outlines the theoretical framework of Critical Race Theory or CRT
Critique's the assumption that Students of Color come to the classroom with cultural deficiencies.
Utilizing a CRT lens,Yasso challenges the traditional interpretations of Bourdieuean cultural capital theory (Bourdieu & Passeron, 1977) (Pg.70)
Introduce an alternative concept called community cultural wealth.
Yasso outlines at least six forms of capital that comprise community cultural wealth and most often go unacknowledged or unrecognized. In examining some of the under-utilized assets Students of Color bring with them from their homes and communities into the classroom.(Pg.70)
The article also notes the potential of community cultural wealth to transform the process of schooling.

Challenging racism, revealing cultural wealth
What is Theory?
Looking through a CRT lense means critiquing deficit theorizing and data that may be limited by its omission of the voices of People of Color.

Such deficit- informed research often ‘sees’ deprivation in Communities of Color.

Theory is a coherent group of tested general propositions, commonly regarded as correct, that can be used as principles of explanation and prediction for a class of phenomena

Yasso proposes that some of these knowledge's or theories have been kept from minorities, and even entry into some professions and academia have been denied to minorities

"Because we are not allowed to enter discourse, because we are often disqualified and excluded from it, because what passes for theory these days is forbidden territory for us, it is vital that we occupy theorizing space, that we not allow white men and women solely to occupy it"(69).

Because of this exclusion, minorities culture is seen as less
"If we have been gagged and disempowered by theories, we can also be loosened and empowered by theories" (Anzaldúa, 1990, 69).

Contemporary Racism in U.S School
Critical Race Theory (CRT)
CRT is a framework that can be used to theorize, examine and challenge the ways race and racism implicitly and explicitly impact on social structures, practices and discourses.
CRT is interdisciplinary and draws from and extends a broad literature base of critical theory in law, sociology, history, ethnic studies and women’s studies.
In its post-1987 form, CRT emerged from criticisms of the Critical Legal Studies (CLS)
CLS scholars questioned the role of the traditional legal system in legitimizing oppressive social structures.

Pierre Bourdieu Culture Capital theory, argues that the knowledge of the upper and middle classes are considered capital valuable to a hierarchical society.
If one is not born into a family whose knowledge is already deemed valuable, one could then access the knowledges of the middle and upper class and the potential for social mobility through formal schooling.

Bourdieu’s theoretical insight about how a hiearchical society reproduces itself has often been interpreted as a way to explain why the academic and social outcomes of People of Color are significantly lower than the outcomes of Whites.

"The assumption follows that People of Color ‘lack’ the social and cultural capital required for social mobility. As a result, schools most often work from this assumption in structuring ways to help ‘disadvantaged’ students whose race and class background has left them lacking necessary knowledge, social skills, abilities and cultural capital". (Bourdieu & Passeron, 1977)

What is Culture Capital?
Deficit thinking takes the position that minority students and families are at fault for poor academic performance:

(a) students enter school without the normative cultural knowledge and skills; and
example: students are lazy, not motivated and lack certain social skills.

(b) parents neither value nor support their child’s education.

4. The centrality of experiential knowledge
5. The transdisciplinary perspective
CRT claims to be legitimate, appropriate and critical to : understanding, analyzing and teaching about racial subordination.

CRT draws on lived experiences of People of Color:
family histories
chronicles and narratives

as oppose to institutions that have power to distribute subjective knowledge of People of Color through:
television programs
mass media
musical lyrics and music videos
published work

All of which are created by individuals who do not fit the description of the written individuals

CRT uses interdisciplinary or transdiscipinary approaches to analyze the knowledge learned with both historical and contemporary contexts.

ethnic studies
women studies
history law
and other fields

CRT being applied:
The Journal of African American Society dedicated an entire issue to "Cultural capital and African American education" (Franklin, 2004)
worked with two African American school communities in the U.S Urban South and midwest in discussing implications of his ethnographic work
Jerome Morris explains, "Black people shared their cultural capital with one another and developed a social capital (Black social capital) for survival and success in a segregated world bouned by omnipresent forces of racism and discrimination" (81).
CRT begins with the perspective that communities of color are places with multiple strengths.
CRT shifts the research lens away from a deficit view of communitities of color as places full of cultural poverty or disadvantages and instead focuses on an learns from these communities' cultural assets & wealth (Solorzano &Solorzano, 1995; Valenica & Solorzano, 1997; Villalpando & Solorzano, 2005)
Shernaz Gracia and Patricia Guerra
Students and families to conform to normative ideas about schooling.
deficit approaches to schooling begin with over generalization about family background and are exacerbated by limited framework to interpret how individual views of educational success.

Banking Method of Education by Paulo Freire
"Education becomes an act of depositing, in which the students are the depositories and the teacher is the depositor. Instead of communicating, the teacher issues communiques and the makes deposits which the students patiently receive, memorize and repeat" Paulo Freire

What is Culture?
race= cultural difference
for students of color race has taken on many divergent meaning.
some believe culture is the same as race and ethnicity.
others believe culture refers to behaviors and values that are learned, shared and exhibited by a group oF people.
Culture can also mean material object.
Culture as a set of characteristics is neither fixed nor static.
6 Forms of Capital that Nurture Community Cultural Wealth
aspirational capital
linguistic capital
familial capital
social capital
navigational capital
resistant capital

Aspirational Capital
Aspirational capital: the ability to maintain hopes and dreams for the future, even in the face of real and perceived barriers
Ex: Chicanas/os experience the lowest educational outcomes compared to every other group in the U.S., but maintain consistently high aspirations for their children’s future

Linguistic Capital
Linguistic capital:
includes the intellectual and social skills attained through communication experiences in more than one language and/or style
Reflects the idea that Students of Color arrive at school with multiple language and communication skills
Refers to the ability to communicate via visual art, music or poetry

Familial Capital
Familial capital: those cultural knowledges nurtured among familia (kin) that carry a sense of community history, memory and cultural intuition
Nurtured by our ‘extended family,’ which may include immediate family (living or long passed on) as well as aunts, uncles, grandparents and friends
Learn the importance of maintaining a healthy connection to our community and its resources
Our kin model lessons of caring, coping and providing, which inform our emotional, moral, educational and occupational consciousness

CRT Challenge to deficit thinking
Social Capital
Social capital: networks of people and community resources that can provide both instrumental and emotional support to navigate through society’s institutions
Historically, People of Color have utilized their social capital to attain education, legal justice, employment and health care
Ex: Even immigrants to the US and enslaved African Americans created and maintained social networks
‘Lift as we climb’
‘Families transcend the adversity in their daily lives by uniting with supportive social networks’

Navigational Capital
Navigational capital: skills of maneuvering through social institutions historically not created with Communities of Color in mind
Ex: Strategies to navigate through racially-hostile university campuses draw on concept of academic invulnerability, or students’ ability to ‘sustain high levels of achievement, despite presence of stressful events and conditions that place them at risk of doing poorly at school and ultimately dropping out of school’
People of Color draw on various social and psychological ‘critical navigational skills’ to maneuver through structures of inequality permeated by racism
Connects to social networks that facilitate community navigation through places and spaces including schools, the job market and the health care and judicial systems

Resistant Capital
Resistant capital: those knowledges and skills fostered through oppositional behavior that challenges inequality
Grounded in legacy of resistance to subordination exhibited by Communities of Color
Ex: Japanese communities in internment camps resisted racism by maintaining and nurturing various forms of cultural wealth
Parents of Color are consciously instructing their children to engage in behaviors and maintain attitudes that challenge the status quo

Funds of Knowledge
- studies latino communities
empowering cultures of Communities of Color leads to cultural wealth.

Bourdieu and Passeron
asked the question; why do Students of Color not succeed at the same rate as Whites?

Cultural Capital- refers to to an accumulation of cultural knowledge, skills and abilities possessed and inherited by privileged groups of society.

his theory of cultural capital has been used to assert that some communities are more cultural wealthy then others.
- White middle class culture becomes the standard and therefore all others forms and expressions of "culture" are judge and compared to the norm.

Communities of Color Cultural wealth through a CRT LENSE
Communities of color nurture cultural wealth through at least 6 forms of capital.
these forms are dynamic and build on one another.
"Whose Culture has Capital?"
by Yasso

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