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Transcript of New Zealand
Tatauranga Aotearoa New Zealand's flag consists of the Union Jack and four red stars which represent the Southern Cross constellation. The Polynesian Maori reached New Zealand in about A.D. 800. In 1840, 50 Maori chieftains signed the Treaty of Waitangi, in which they ceded sovereignty to Queen Victoria while retaining territorial rights. Abel Tasman (after whom Tasmania was named), a Dutch explorer was the first to encounter the Maori, in 1642. British explorer James Cook established friendly relations with some Maori in 1679. Four crewmembers were killed in a bloody encounter with Maori. Not until the 1800s, were settlements established by missionaries and whalers. The New Zealand Company ships Tory and Cuba meet in Cook Strait, with four more settler ships close behind. Pencil sketch by Charles Heaphy, 1840, National Library of New Zealand Te Puna Mātauranga o Aotearoa, Alexander Turnbull Library, Wellington The Maoris put up a mild resistance to these first outposts, with a number of clashes taking place. As in Australia, however, the Maoris were no match for the White technology, and could do virtually nothing against the guns of the White settlers. Separate Crown Colony of New Zealand constituted in 1841, with Auckland as the capitol. The Maoris, who unlike the Aborigines in Australia, had not been decimated by White born diseases, started to realize that the White settlers were increasing at a fast rate. Several violent Maori uprisings against the Whites occurred between 1845 - 1848, and again between 1860 to 1872. These uprisings are known as the New Zealand Wars. In 1860, gold was discovered in New Zealand and a fresh wave of immigrants poured in. Sheep were introduced around the same time, and soon sheep farming and mining were the main occupations. New Zealand, a British Commonwealth, becomes a parliamentary democracy in 1856. In 1893, New Zealand becomes the first country in the world to allow women the right to vote. The total population of New Zealand in 1914 was just over one million. Approximately 103,000 enlisted men served overseas during WWI.
A total of 2227 Maori and 458 Pacific Islanders served in the New Zealand forces. In 1865 Wellington (sometimes referred to Windy Wellington) replaced Auckland as the official capitol of New Zealand, although Auckland is the most populous city. New Zealand had one of the highest casualty (about 58%) and death rate per capita of any country involved in the war. Anzac Day is a national day of remembrance in Australia and New Zealand, and is commemorated by both countries on 25 April every year to honour members of the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZAC) who fought at Gallipoli in Turkey during World War I. Anzac biscuits (originally called Soldiers' biscuits) came into being around 1915 (during World War I) when soldiers' wives and mothers would bake and send the biscuits to the troops stationed overseas. They are non-perishable because they contain no milk or eggs, and quite tastey. Head of State: HM Queen Elizabeth II
Governor-General Sir Anand Satyanand Prime Minister John Key Current Leaders At its peak in July 1942, New Zealand had 154,549 men and women under arms (excluding the Home Guard) and by the war's end a total of 194,000 men and 10,000 women had served in the armed forces at home and overseas. Quick Facts Population: 4,365,508
About twice the population of Houston. Official Languages: English, Maori While not an official symbol, the Kiwi, a small native flightless bird, represents New Zealand It's a fact: at 41.2o South, Wellington is the most southerly capital city on the planet. Cities on similar latitudes in the Northern hemisphere are Barcelona, Istanbul and Chicago. New Zealand holds a rare position in the world in that it has two national anthems of equal standing - 'God Defend New Zealand' and 'God Save The Queen.' Currency 1 New Zealand dollar = 0.7157 U.S. dollars
Coins:10c, 20c, 50c, $1, $2
Banknotes: $5, $10, $20, $50, $100
All goods and services are subject to a 12.5 percent Goods and Services Tax (GST) included in the displayed price.
Here is a general guide of what you can expect to pay in New Zealand for a few common items:
A postcard stamp to anywhere abroad NZ$1.50
Big Mac Hamburger NZ$3.95
Cappuccino NZ$3 - $3.50
Kodak Film, 36 exposures NZ$7.95 Websites:
The youngest country on earth. The oil crisis of 1973-1974 severely affects New Zealand as oil is a major import. The Government begins to borrow overseas to balance the effects of increased oil costs. Inflation rises. In 1975 new trade deals are made with Middle East countries, Japan and the Soviet Union.
Efforts to diversify New Zealand's exports continue. During the 1970s the range of dairy products sold expands and by 1985 62,000 tonnes of kiwifruit are exported. By 1985 the "traditional three" wool, meat and dairy products provide only 65% of New Zealand exports. During the 1950s and 1960s farmers are generally earning good incomes and have more to spend on consumer items as well as farm development. There is more travel overseas and more rural people have better cars. Service industries increase in rural areas, e.g. grocery stores, petrol stations/garages, car sales firms, stock and station firms and retail stores.
Many Māori move to the cities in search of work. By 1961 33% of Māori live in cities and towns. Walter James Bolton is known as the last person to be executed in New Zealand before the abolition of capital punishment. Found guilty of poisoning his wife, he was hanged on February 18, 1957. Voting age reduce from 21 to 20 in 1968, then again to 18 in 1974. First visit to New Zealand by the Pope took place in 1986 by Pope John Paul II. One and two cent coins are no longer legal tender in 1990. In 1991, New Zealand troops join multi-national force in the Gulf War. Team New Zealand wins America's Cup in 1995. The cup is damaged in 1997 during an attack by a Māori activist. It took 3 months to restore. In 2006, 5 cent coin is dropped from circulation. 2008, Sir Edmund Hillary dies. On May 29, 1953, he and Tenzing Norgay became the first climbers known to have reached the summit of Mount Everest.