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Model Project (Michael Barker)

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Michael Barker

on 16 April 2014

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Transcript of Model Project (Michael Barker)

Johann Heinrich von Thünen
" Ring Around the Market"
W. W. Rostow
I concur that each state of this earth develop economically and politically identical to the others. I shall call this the ladder of development.
The stages each state follows:
Preconditions to Take-off
Drive to Maturity
High Mass Consumption

Ladder of Development
Ernest W. Burgess
There is a central CBD with more rings around it!!
"Ring Around the CBD"
AP Human Geography Models
Thomas Malthus
we should listen to @JonathanSwift and eat our children
Transportation Costs and Agglomeration
Alfred Weber
Hmm.. It seems to me that industries tend to locate depending on transportation costs, labor costs, and the benefits of agglomeration... interesting
some one tell the textbook writers

Posted on June 25th, 1956
Posted on Jan 5th, 1804
Warren Thompson
Population growth is in stages hmmm.. #Stage12345
A Study of the Population Growth in Britain
Ernst Georg Ravenstein
I conclude that there are certain laws that govern the migration of people around the world.
They are as follows:
1) Most migrants only proceed a short distance, and toward centers of absorption.
2) As migrants move toward absorption centers, they leave "gaps" that are filled up by migrants from more remote districts, creating migration flows that reach to "the most remote corner of the kingdom."
3) The process of dispersion is inverse to that of absorption.
4) Each main current of migration produces a compensating counter-current.
5) Migrants proceeding long distances generally go by preference to one of the great centers of commerce or industry.
6) The natives of towns are less migratory than those of the rural parts of the country.
7) Females are more migratory than males.

Migration Laws
Isaac Newton
MY Law of Universal Gravitation also applies to migration between places in geography :P
Gravity in Geography!
Locational Interdependence
Harold Hotelling
Ice Cream Stands are AMAZING
Economic Distribution in the World
Immanuel Wallerstein
Actually, NO Rostow you are WRONG! The world is ordered in a core-periphery way.
Walter Christaller
So there.. are these hexagons (not circles) and they describe the hinterlands of urban places
Hexagons and Hinterlands!
Homer Hoyt
There is a CBD with pie sections surrounding it!!!!!
Pie... I like Pie.
Chauncy Harris
I am also posting on the behalf of @EdwardUllman and we are proud to say that we have discovered a new model for North American Urban Geography!!!!
No Pie, No Circle, Only Edge Cities
Harm de Blij
There are 3 CBDs in the African City Model!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
Africa is Important toooooo!!
Ernst C. Griffith
Excuse my Spanish. @LarryFord #Espanol
Latin American City Modelo!
T.G. McGee
I think I might have to work on my Vietnamese...
Đông Nam Á Thành phố Mẫu
Halford Mackinder
NAH Mackinder
Nicholas Spykman
NAHHH.. Russia isn't the problem. PROTECT THE RIMLAND! #ProtecttheRimland
Johann Heinrich von Thünen
" Ring Around the Market" (con't)
The Von Thunen Model shows the locations of agricultural practices surrounding a central market
: The landscape is a flat plain with no extreme features, transportation costs are proportional to the distance from the market
: The model is outdated and does not take into account the recent innovations of refrigeration, there is no need for a forest ring around the market and therefore it is outdated
Related Vocabulary
: CBD, Bid Rent Theory, Intensive, and Extensive Farming
There are 4 rings in the model: Intensive Farming, Forest, Extensive Farming, and Ranching
1st Ring
: consists of production of perishable good such as milk and cheese, this is located closest to the market because it needs to be transported quickly before it rots
2nd Ring
: the forest is essential to the city because wood was needed in order to fuel fires before the discovery of coal, trees are harder to transport and therefore need to be located close to the market.
This is also called the Burgess Model
The first urban model used to explain the layouts of cities
: The model takes place in a flat landscape with no intrusions
: The model is too simple and only applies up to the 1950s, the model is developed for American cities and doesn't naturally apply elsewhere
Related Vocabulary
: Central Business District (CBD), commuter
The Concentric Zone model states that the commuting workers live far from the CBD
Johann Heinrich von Thünen
" Ring Around the Market" (con't)
3rd Ring
: extensive crops such as wheat and corn are grown here because they are easier to transport and they do not rot quickly
4th Ring
: ranching is performed here because animals can transport themselves to the market where they are sold, transportation costs are almost non-existent this way
Ernst Georg Ravenstein
Migration Laws (Con't)
Ravenstein's Migration Laws illustrate certain guidelines as to how people migrate and why they do
: none really
: Time-Space Compression has almost eliminated any laws that include distance decay
Related Vocabulary
: Push and Pull Factors, Migration, Gravity Model
1st Law
: Migrants tend to move only short distances and also tend to relocate in areas of high population or "gravity"
2nd Law
: As migrants move toward these population centers, they leave "gaps" which are then filled by other migrants
3rd Law
: Diffusion of people counters gravitation of people
4th Law
: Each migration flow also has a counter- migration flow
Ernst Georg Ravenstein
Migration Laws (Con't)
5th Law
: Migrants moving to places far away tend to relocate in urban areas
6th Law
: Natives of a town are less migratory than those in rural areas
7th Law
: Females are more migratory then males
Females tend to move more within a country while males make international moves, females migrate more though
Families also tend to migrate less than single males
Single adult males are more likely to migrate than any other person
The Weber Model describes the location of industries based upon transportation and labor costs as well as agglomeration
: transportation costs are proportionate to distance
: Nothing really
Related Vocabulary: Bulk Gaining and Reducing, Market, Resources
Transportation Costs
: The industry will locate wherever transportation costs are the lowest
Labor Costs
: Industries will locate where labor costs are the lowest which would be in the preiphery or semi-periphery
Transportation Costs and Agglomeration
Alfred Weber
: Industries may locate near eachother in order to take advantage of eachother's shared talents, services, or facilities (Ex: Food Court)
Bulk-Gaining Industries located close to the market
Bulk-Reducing Industries locate closer to the resources
Example of Bulk-Gaining: Soda Bottling
Example of Bulk-Reducing: Smelting of a metal (Copper, Nickel, etc)
Least Cost Theory
W. W. Rostow
Ladder of Development
The Rostow Model AKA Ladders of Development describe the progression of a country through the stages of the model
: All countries will go through each stage
: countries may skip steps or go through different paths
Related Vocabulary
: Core, Periphery, Industrialization
- Subsistent, bartering economy, does not have technology
Preconditions to Takeoff
- society is moving toward manufacturing, acceptance of technology is occurring
- Industrialization occurs, a short period of growth where the country moves into technology and industry
Drive to Maturity
- this takes place for a long period of time, as standard of living rises, technology increases
Age of High Mass Consumption
- an age of mass consumption governed by capitalism and consumerism
The Hotelling model shows the effect od competition on locational decisions
Related Vocabulary
: Locational Interdependence
The model shows two ice cream stand with same types of ice cream and same prices, buyers are evenly distributed throughout the beach
In the end, the stands will locate back-to-back in the middle of the beach, showing that locations of firms are effected by other firms and competition
Economic Distribution in the World
Immanuel Wallerstein

The Core-Periphery Model is used to organize the world's countries on an economic scaling that is described by either: Core, Semi-Periphery, or Periphery
: Every country is set in their category
: Liberal Models, such as the Rostow Model, counter that countries can change
Related Vocabulary
: Development, Gross National Product (GNP), Human Capital, Neocolonialism, Dependency Theory
Core Country
- A highly developed country that is known to have high amounts of technology and has a high amount of jobs in tertiary activities (service industry)
Ex: The United States and Japan
Semi-Periphery Country
- A moderately developed country that invests most of its workers in secondary activities (Manufacturing)
Ex: Mexico and China
Periphery Country
- A very poorly developed country that invests most of its jobs in primary activities (Agriculture or Mining)
Ex: Uganda, Nigeria, and Sudan
Dependency Theory
- the theory that states that periphery countries still depend upon the core countries for resources and this is why these periphery countries stay poor and cannot develop
Economic Distribution in the World
Immanuel Wallerstein
The Core-Periphery Model is connected to almost every other model and concept in the field of Human Geography
Core Countries are also
: Stage 4/5 countries, centers of commerce and population, urbanized, in Drive to Maturity or Age of Mass Consumption according to the Rostow Model
Semi-Periphery Countries are also
: Stage 3 countries, the outcome of outsourcing from core countries, centers of manufacturing and factories
Periphery Countries are also
: Stage 2 countries, are suppressed by the more developed countries, are taken advantage of for lower labor costs and less environmental policies
The Sector Model was developed in the 1930s to counter on the Concentric Zone model which was outdated by then and describes the layout of cities described by pie-sliced sectors in the city
: Uniform land, resources, and transportation, only 1 CBD
: It does not represent modern cities which now have edge cities
Related Vocabulary
: Residential zoning and CBD
Hoyt explains that land rent in this model would stay the same and also shows that cities would grow along a major axis
He also discovered as growth and the implementation of technology continued the city would have more of this pie-shaped structure
The Multiple-Nuclei Model describes the urban morphology of a city and describes the presence of edge cities and more than 1 CBD
Assumptions: uniform land, resources, and transportation
Criticisms: only really applicable to cities in the United States
Related Vocabulary: Zoning, CBD, Edge City, Suburbs
An Edge City is a node of business and industries right outside of a city also can be described as a suburb
Ex: Lawrenceville is an edge city of Atlanta
The Latin American City model (AKA Grifin-Ford Model) describes the urban morphology of a Latin American City
: There is 1 CBD, uniform land
: No real criticisms
Related Vocabulary
: CBD, shantytown, formal economy, informal economy
Shantytowns or Favelas are disamenity sectors of the city that are found in the periphery rim of the city, shantytowns are built from scrap metal and cardboard
The Latin American City Model shows an area coming off of the CBD called the Spine and the Mall which are highly developed areas in the city
Richer residents live nearer to the CBD while poorer residents live in the shantytowns in the outskirts of the city
Mackinder's Hypothesis:
Who rules East Europe commands the Heartland.
Who rules the Heartland commands the World-Island.
Who rules the World-Island commands the World.
The Southeast Asian Model or McGee Model describes the urban morphology of cities of Southeast Asia
-uniform land and only 1 CBD
- Not really any except for the fact that the model cannot apply to ALL cities
Related Vocabulary
- Squatter Settlements and CBD
The Port Zone plays as the CBD because it is the area with the most trade and commerce
Just outside the Port Zone is the Government Zone
In general the Upper-Class live along the right edge of the city while the Middle-Class tend to cluster around the other areas of the city
In the model, Western commercial zones and Alien commercial zones are also indicated which shows that many Southeast Asian countries are influenced by international companies
The Demographic Transition model describes the population growth of a country throughout its life
- Like any Liberal Model, all countries will go through these stages
- Immigration a Emigration are not accounted for, was based on the population of Great Britain which is a small sample size and is situated on an island
Related Vocabulary
- Crude Birth Rate, Crude Death Rate, Population Growth, Overpopulation
Stage 1
- A Stage 1 country has high birth rates coupled with high death rates causing little growth to none, this country is currently practicing hunting and gathering and is not using agriculture
Ex: No Country is in Stage 1 currently, Small hunting and gathering societies are still present though
Stage 2
- After the country takes use of agriculture and is introduced to medicine, the country has high birth rates with lowering death rates causing high growth to occur, most agriculturally-based countries are in this stage, and are considered the "periphery" according to the Core-Periphery Model
Ex: Uganda, Kenya, and Sudan
Warren Thompson
A Study of the Population Growth in Britain
Stage 3
- The country has now begun industrialization and is approaching a more manufacturing-based society, children have become an economic liability because they cannot "help out at the farm", Stage 3 is characterized by lowering birth rates with lowering death rates which causes moderate growth, the country is still growing in population but is not growing as much, Stage 3 countries are also considered Semi-Periphery countries according to the Core-Periphery Model
Ex: Mexico and South Africa
Stage 4
- The country has now deindustrialized and is now approaching a more service-based economy, birth rates are low and so are death rates leading to little to no growth, countries in this stage are generally considered Core countries according to the Core-Periphery Model
Ex: Canada and China (Forced into Stage 4 by One Child Policy)
Stage 5
- The country has now reached even higher development and has dropped birth rates below death rates, this causes negative growth, countries in Stage 5 are known as Core countries according to the Core-Periphery Model and are known to be highly developed and service-based in its economy
Ex: Japan, France, and Germany
Generally speaking the world is currently declining in birth rates
The Gravity Model was not created by Sir Isaac Newton but his Law of Universal Gravitation was an inspiration for it
The Gravity Model shows the likeliness of a person to migrate from one location to another with a formula:
(Population #1)(Population #2)
- the person's migration is affected by distance rather than anything else
- there are more factors that are included in the idea of migration than population sizes and distance, Time-Space Compression has caused the Gravity Model to be almost totally extinguished (sorry Newton D:)
Related Vocabulary
- Distance Decay, Migration, Push/Pull Factors
Distance is squared in the equation showing that distance is the main factor that affects a person's migrational patterns
Population #1 and Population #2 are the population sizes of 2 cities and you multiply those
Ex: City A has a population of 100 people, and City B has a population of 200 people. These 2 cities are 10 miles apart from eachother. Calculate the "gravity" between these two cities according to the Gravity Model.
City A's population (100) and City B's population (200) would be multiplied which makes 20,000. The distance between must be squared which would be 100. Now you would take the product of City A and City B (20,000) and divide it by distance squared (100). The answer is 200.
Thomas Malthus believed that there would be an overpopulation crisis that will occur because food is produced linearly and population grows exponentially
- Population grows exponentially while resources (food) grows linearly
- Technology has caused food to also grow exponentially and therefore Malthus was wrong
Related Vocabulary
- Food Production, Population Growth, Overpopulation
The study of the Malthusian theory still is relevant because at the time Malthus published his works the world was in Stage 2 of the Demographic Transition Model
Malthus posed a valid point that soon humanity will reach its carrying capacity
However, technology has caused food production to be higher than ever before and therefore Malthus' theory is considered non-existent now
Those that still believe in Malthus' theory are called neo-Malthusians
The Central Place Theory (Christaller Theory) describes the influence of an urban place on the area around it
- Uniform land
- the theory applites well to agricultural societies but not to industrial societies
Related Vocabulary
- Threshold, Range, Hinterland, City, Town, Village, Hamlet, Urban Hierarchy
The basic concept of the model is that cities have the highest influence around it and hamlets have the smallest, the influence of an urban place is defined by its place in the urban hierarchy
Threshold- the certain amount of people needed for a business to operate
Range- the distance people are wiling to travel to get the good or service
Hinterland- the area of influence surrounding an urban place
The urban hierarchy from largest to smallest is: City, Town, Village, and Hamlet
Christaller made the hinterlands of the places to be hexagons because circles overlapped and hexagons do not
The African City Model describes the urban morphology of cities in Africa
- uniform land, in Africa, 3 CBDs
- none really
Related Vocabulary
- CBD, Ethnic Neighborhoods, Shantytowns
There are 3 CBDs in the African City Model: Colonial, Traditional, and Market
- This the original CBD that was superimposed by a colonial power and is usually very square or rectangular in shape, depending on the city and its people the colonial CBD may be booming or deserted
- This is the CBD that has many traditional architecture and is home to many people in the city
- The market CBD is characterized by housing the informal economy of the city and plays an integral part in the economy
Informal Satellite Townships on he outskirts of the city are essentially Shantytowns
Note: the key point of this model is that African Cities have 3 CBDs
- the Heartland consists mostly of the center of Asia and come parts of Europe
- the theory is countered by the Rimland Theory and the Sea Power Theory
Related Vocabulary- NATO and Heartland
The Heartland Theory focuses on the fear that if the Heartland were to be taken over then the world would be taken over
This sprung NATO into action allowing the suppression of the Soviet forces
Mackinder Theory
The Rimland Theory states that if the Eurasian rimland were to be taken over, then the country that has control over it would have world domination because it has contorol over most of the ports of the world
- the Rimland consists of the European Coast, the Middle-Eastern Deserts, and Ease and Southeast Asia
- The Heartland Theory counters the Rimland Theory
Related Vocabulary
- Rimland and Ports
The Rimland theory is also known as the Spykman Theory
Full transcript