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First philosophers

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Andrea Amezcua

on 22 August 2013

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Transcript of First philosophers

A long time ago... (VI-IV b.c.)
1. Ontology and metaphysics: The first questions
-Philosophy of nature
-What is the condition of the so called 'reality'?
-Identity: to identify and re-identify.
-Objectivity and subjectivity
-Essence and substance
-Occidental and oriental views on reality

Presocratic Philosophers
Milesian Monist
Thales Water

Anaximander The boundless

Anaximenes Air
Other monist
Pythagoras Numbers

Heraclitus Change (Fire)

Parmenides Being
Empedocles Earth, air, fire, water

Anaxgoras Seeds, or germs

Democritus Atoms

Socrates, Plato and the Sophist
Dialogue as thought

No writting

Plato's cave allegory
Subjectivity and Objectivity
"There is no subject without object, and no object without subject"

Is there an essence in beings?
Discuss: If pieces of a car are replaced until no original part is left, is it still the same car?
Formal cause: design, Final cause: end or purpose, Efficient cause: tools and techniques, Material cause: matter.

What does this imply about identity?
What is the essence of human beings?: Memory
1st Partial Program
¿What do you think?
¿Is there an absolute truth?
No ultimate truth

"Man is the measure of all things"
Extreme language!

The branch of philosophy investigating what is real
The branch of metaphysics dealing with the study of the being
The being, the one, the total, the unchangeable

Activity: Read Parmenides' poem
of the being
Oriental views
: Nirvana: a state in which individuality is extinguished or the state of enlightenment in which all pain, suffering, mental anguish and the need for successive rebirths disappear.
: Tao: the Way, the fundamental principle of the world, the cosmic order, nature in Taoism.
: Animism: the philosophical theory that all being is animate, living, contains spirit.
An african view of a Sacred Cosmos
Nature, living things, humans, the ancestors, and a supreme being or beings all share in one world, a world to which all of them equally belong.

The world as feminine and masculine, not separated. One big whole.
*Nyx, Hynos, Thanatos.
The world as an ordered whole
: the branch of metaphysics dealing with the study of the principles underlying the cosmos.

A little assignment
1. Pretend you are the first to consider what the origin might be. Write your own definition of the basic "world stuff" from which everything comes from.

2. Of the thing you are pretty certain to know, how many do you know by reason and how many by intuition? Of the many things you consider the most vital, did reason or intuition lead you to them?
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