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Heart of Darkness

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Miranda Bray

on 22 October 2013

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Transcript of Heart of Darkness

Heart of Darkness: Part 2 Helmsman The Helmsman is a native that of course, works the helm of the ship. He dies by a spear when Marlow and the pilgrims land on shore to go find Kurtz and are attacked by natives. Marlow said Kurtz was not worth the life of the helmsman. This shows how much Marlow values him, even though he is a native. The helmsman is useful, and this is why Marlow appreciates him. Marlow values work, and the helmsman does quite a bit of it. General Manager The general manager is easily influenced by his uncle. The uncle tried to convince him he could get away with murder. The manager does not think Kurtz is a great man. He represents civilization. First Narrator The first narrator only appears once in Part II. He said "......" This shows a change in narrative voice. It is also important because of what is said, "Try to be civil Marlow. This raises a question of Marlow's civility. Marlow Marlow is the main speaker. He is set on finding Kurtz, the man he has heard so much about. Marlow is a storyteller, and he tends to go all over the place when talking. It is difficult to determine whether he is a reliable narrator or not due to this. Marlow does no know what to think of Kurtz, for he does not know much about him. Marlow hates lies. An important characteristic of Marlow is that he values work and appreciates people, such as the Helmsman, that are actually useful. Kurtz At this point, Kurtz is still only an idea. It is unknown if his is a real person or not. Kurtz appears in the form of a voice, which emphasizes the "godfigure" of his character. It is unknown is Kurtz has good or bad morals at this point, but it is known he is disliked by the general manager. Russian Trader The Russian Trader is naive to the darkness. He believes Kurtz is a good man . He also represents madness, as he appears in multicolored clothing Here, Marlow is telling about the General Manager. The Manager is describing how he believes that men who venture out to the Congo should arrive without their "entrails". Basically he is saying they should just be empty shells without any substance in order to survive there, lest they be forever changed by the "Heart of Darkness". While working on the boat, Marlow overhears a conversation between the General Manager and his uncle. They speak about Kurtz and a trader whom they wish to hang. When the uncle says "Anything can be done in this country", it implies that morals are no longer important to a human being once rewards and punishments for their behaviors are taken away. The General Manager and his uncle reveal that Kurtz is sick. The General Manager is angered by Kurtz's fixation on the savages and his attempts to civilize them. It is implied that Kurtz will die soon. The Uncle leads the Expedition into the wilderness soon after. Marlow only hears that the donkeys have died, but nothing else. Marlow says that he knows what happened to the men, whom he calls "lesser animals compared to donkeys. Reoccurring Themes Hollowness of Civilization The Value of Work Civilization vs. Savagery plot Symbols , Motifs
and Themes Hollowness of Civilization- Because the General Manager and his uncle want to hang the trader just because there is no law in this area, it leads us to believe that humans only believe in civility when it is forced upon them, and once taken out of that environment, morality means nothing. The Value of Work- The pilgrims in the Expedition are characterized by their lack of progress or work, and this is why Marlow values the donkeys over them. The Power of Words Quote “It was unearthly, and the men were—No, they were not inhuman. Well, you know, that was the worst of it—the suspicion of their not being inhuman. It would come slowly to one. They howled and leaped, and spun, and made horrid faces; but what thrilled you was just the thought of their humanity—like yours—the thought of your remote kinship with this wild and passionate uproar. Ugly. Yes, it was ugly enough; but if you were man enough you would admit to yourself that there was in you just the faintest trace of a response to the terrible frankness of that noise, a dim suspicion of there being a meaning in it which you—you so remote from the night of first ages—could comprehend. And why not?” This quote is important because it represents Marlow's relationship with the natives, as well as his philosophy on life. He describes the savage's actions as "ugly ", yet they thrill him because he knows that he is like them. In this quote, Marlow explains that all men have a certain primitiveness or darkness in them as their base nature. Joseph Conrad Heart of Darkness Web of Connections The Russian trader talks to Marlow and informs him that he nursed Kurtz through two illnesses. Heart of Darkness: Part 3 Heart of Darkness plot plot plot plot Marlow falls sick and cannot think of anything to say on his deathbed; he admires Kurtz because he actually had something to say, "the horror!" Marlow returns to the "sepulchral city" in Europe and his aunt nurses him back to health, but unable to calm his mind. -Marlow protects Kurtz's reputation quote Heart of Darkness: Part 1 -the Russian trader does this even though Kurtz threatened to shoot him over ivory. The Russian trader considers Kurtz as a god to the local tribesman -Kurtz takes ivory by force, not trade -the Russian trader states that the native chiefs crawl up to Kurtz when they come to see him Marlow sees the spiked human heads while using his binoculars - comes to the realization that Kurtz is "hollow at the core" and the "jungle is filled with hollowness" plot motif The pilgrims carry Kurtz out of his house on a stretcher. -according to Marlow, Kurtz looks like "an animated image of death carved out of ivory." The Russian tells Marlow that if Kurtz "says the word" then they will all be killed. The natives gather at the shore of the river near the ship. -this is the first time that Kurtz's mistress appears in the plot -the African woman is on the shore pacing back and forth - the Mistress is considered "savage and superb" Kurtz and the General Manager argue -Kurtz believes that the General Manager cares more about the ivory than he does Kurtz The General Manager leaves the cabin and tries to persuade Marlow that he actually cares about Kurtz -Marlow feels bad for Kurtz and states that he is still a remarkable man The Russian trader decides to leave because he feels that he is in danger from the General Manager and his men. -he tells Marlow that Kurtz was the one that ordered the attack on the steamship to scare the General Manager away Marlow wakes up and realizes that Kurtz is missing. -he goes looking for Kurtz and finds him crawling towards the native camp -Marlow states that Kurtz's soul "knew no restraint, no faith, and no fear." Marlow aids Kurtz back to the ship. plot A day later the ship departs. Kurtz and Marlow are in the pilothouse and watch the natives and mistress come to the shore. theme- The theme of civilization blinding itself appears here to signify the pilgrims, who are "civilized," blinding Marlow, who is civilized, from seeing the shore. - All the natives leave except for the mistress.
- The pilgrims appear and open fire, blocking Marlow's vision. plot The steamship breaks down and Kurtz feels concerned that he will not live to see Europe. -Kurtz gives Marlow his papers scared that the General Manager will try to get to them Kurtz cries out in a whisper, "The horror! The horror!"" -Kurtz dies. plot -Marlow considers Kurtz's statement a moral victory. plot plot Characterization The Company representative goes to Marlow to get Kurtz's papers from him. Marlow Marlow is the narrator of the story that is framed. Throughout the work, there is a question of Marlow's reliability as a narrator. This question is never directly answered, so the reader must must determine this for themselves. As a narrator, Marlow dehumanizes the natives and describes them in an animalistic way. Malow states that he hates lies, but in the end Marlow is a hypocrite because he lies to Kurtz's intended about his last words. Marlow also values work. He held the helmsman as valuable, even though he was a Coastal Native, because he worked hard. Marlow is also a conflicted character. In his thoughts, he expresses a disapproval of Kurtz. However though his actions, he supports and even admires Kurtz. General Manager Kurtz's cousin arrives and tells Marlow that Kurtz was a great musician . Kurtz Kurtz is a man who is in charge of the inner station and collects large amounts of ivory for the Company. It is found out that he was able to obtain that mount of ivory by raiding native villages and using force. There is a question is Kurtz morals are good or bad, and if he truly is a remarkable man. Marlow mentions that Kurtz was not worth the Helmsman's lif. He also says that Kurtz had no restraint, like a "tree swayed by the wind." The first description of Kurtz is natives paddling him a way and only the back of his head was seen. Kurtz is not only a character, but also an idea. It is unknown until part 3 if Kurtz is a true person or not, but the idea of him is real. Kurtz is just a "voice" throughout much of the story. Marlow even calls him a voice after he has seen him and met him. Kurtz became a god figure to the natives, and the worshiped him. This was because he came to them with guns. Kurtz is honest with his cruelty an he even has heads hanged on stakes outside the station. This means Kurtz is not a hypocrite, and Marlow can see this. Marlow also admires Kurtz for being able to speak on his deathbed; his last words were "The horror, the horror." Russian Trader First Narrator Mistress -the cousin leaves with family letters that Marlow gives to him The Russian has become acquainted with Kurtz and nursed him through two illnesses. The hut and book Marlow and his men find belong to him, and he has lived alone in the jungle for two years. He is naive and under Kurtz's "spell". He is in awe of Kurtz just by hearing him talk. The Russian trader truly believes Kurtz is a great man and even says "This man has enlarged my mind." This scene can go back to the doctor measuring heads and the measure of insanity. The Russian Trader represents madness, and he even appears to Marlow in multiclored clothing, almost like a clown. This imagery further develops the madness of his character. Through his naivity, the Russian Trader is oblivious to cruelty and can not determine what is good and what is evil. The first narrator only has a voice once in part three. This is the last paragraph in the work. He says that he can see the darkness in the distance. This is important because it shows the darkness never truly goes away. Intended and Narrative Voice The mistress comes onto the beach, then throws here hands up in the air in a rigid fashion. She is wearing expensive jewelry and clothes, bought with ivory. She represents the savage side of Kurtz and his life in the Congo. Kurtz intended mourns his death for almost two years, when Marlow goes to see here. She believes Kurtz needed her in the Congo, because she loved him and understood him. This is ironic because she did not knw the man Kurtz had becom, and probably would not love him. She represents the civil side of Kurtz, what his life used to be, and the good man he once was. Conrad also uses her as a comment on women. She lives in the allusion of who Kurtz was, just as Mrlow said women live in their own world, oblivious to the world of man. plot Marlow visits Kurtz's Intended and gives her the last of the letters. Marlow lies to the Intended and says that Kurtz's last words were her name The General Manager is opposed to Kurtz, and disapproves of him. He is very concerned with his own power, money, and position. As Marlow said, " He was just the kind of man who would wish to preserve appearance". The General Manager is also easily influenced by other people, such as his uncle His uncle tried to convince him he could get away with murder. The General Manager also represents civilization. -he doesn't want Kurtz's Intended to see the dark reality plot Theme The theme of madness is seen in this event. Marlow began to descend into madness when he was in the Congo. The aunt cured him physically, but she was unable to relieve his mind of the things he experienced. Theme This event involves the development of the theme and motif of secrets.Though Marlow hates lies, he keeps Kurtz's secrets to protect him. Marlow had a distatse for secrets earlier in the work, but now has one of his own. Marlow is still, on the anchored Nellie, in the Thames. Then the Narrator states that the Thames seemed to lead to the "uttermost ends of the earth," and "into the heart of an immense darkness." Theme This shows the theme of secrets and lies. Marlow lies to the Intended about Kurtz last words. He does this to protect her and keep her in the allusion of women. This can also be representative of how society hides the truth of imperialism through "pretty ideas". He wants to keep the darkness hidden from her, and protect Kurtz's reputation still. Hypocracy is also seen because Marlow said he hates lies, but then he himself lied. This also shows that darkness resides within the human heart, as Marlow was a hypocrite. Heart of Darkness Joseph Conrad Hamlet William Shakespeare Heart of Darkness relates to Hamlet in many ways, one of which is the ability to act. Hamlet is unable to act and avenge his fathers death. He admires Fortinbras for being able to act and coming to fight for land. Marlow is very similar in that he can not find words that he could utter upon his deathbed. Marlow, like Hamlet, admires Kurtz for being able to speak on his death bed, in which he said "the horror! the horror!" Savagery appears again during this point of the journey. The heads spiked on stakes show the darkness of the jungle's inner truth and the corruption that is found within the natives. The natives also crawl up to Kurtz, and by doing this, shows the contrast between the "civilized" men and the natives. -This shows the ultimate power that Kurtz holds over the natives. "There was something wanting him- some small matter which, when the pressing need arose, could not be found under his magnificent eloquence. Whether he knew of this deficiency himself I can't say. I think the knowledge come to him at last- only at the very last. But the wilderness found him out early, and had taken vengeance for the fantastic invasion. I think it had whispered to him things about himself which he did not know, things of which he had no conception till he took counsel with this great solitude-and the whisper had proved irresistibly fascinating. It echoed loudly within him because he was hollow at the core." Quote Marlow says this to describe how Kurtz's true identity is being affected by the jungle's corruption and savagery. Marlow believes that Kurtz is not aware of the impact that the wilderness is having on him. He states that Kurtz is "hollow at the core" to portray the significant change that has occurred within Kurtz. He has been "invaded" by the jungle to create even more savagery and corruption within the natives and pilgrims. symbol The "sepulchral city" symbolizes all of the European civilization. The white outside shows the ideas that Europe uses to have colonization; however, the hollowness exemplifies the desire of power and wealth that continuously motivate the colonial powers. Quote "... an animated image of death carved out of ivory." plot Marlow explains Kurtz as looking like "an animated image of death carved out of ivory," to show the god-type power that Kurtz holds over the natives. He appears to have transformed from a "civilized man" to a god, dominated over the natives. theme The theme, hollowness of civilization, appears again at this point to show the corruption of Kurtz's soul due the jungle. Kurtz has transformed into a savaged "god" to the other natives. A Streetcar Named Desire William Tennessee The characters of both works are influenced by surrounding factors and lie to keep a positive reputation. Branche lies about her reasoning for leaving her hometown in order to keep her sister impressed. On the other hand, Marlow lies to the Intended about Kurtz's last words to keep his notable reputation. Characterization Marlow He is one of the five men on the ship in the Thames. Heart of Darkness is mostly made up of his story about his journey into the Belgian Congo and to Kurtz. First Narrator Kurtz . Director of Companies
Accountant Brickmaker Doctor The first narrator is sitting on board of the ship in the Thames along with Marlow and the other men. He is the one that relays to the reader Marlow's story about Kurtz and the Congo. From this part of the novella, we know from Marlow that Kurtz is a man of great intellect, talent, and ambition. Marlow hears stories of Kurtz and anxiously awaits meeting him. We can also conclude that Kurtz may or may not be a concrete person. Kurtz symbolizes the darkness/madness and exemplifies what happens when it completely transforms you. The Congo has influenced Kurtz to become completely uncivilized. His last words, "the horror! the horror!" signify his complete descend into madness. symbol These three men are aboard the ship with Marlow and the First Narrator. We don't know why they are there. The Brickmaker is the General Manager's most trusted agent. Seeming to have never made a brick, the Brickmaker only cares about his own advancement. He sees Kurtz as a threat. A medical man in the sepulchral city who is interested in how the Congo drives men into madness. He measures Marlow's head. Gravesend The First Narrator, Marlow, Director of Companies, Accountant, and Lawyer are on board a ship called the Nellie. London Narrative Voice Marlow "...into the heart of an immense darkness" "the beginning of an interminable waterway" Marlow begins his story and talks about the job that his Aunt help him get with the Company. The Narrator states this to show the large impact that the Congo had on Kurtz and the natives. By saying that the Thames lead "into the heart of an immense darkness," the Narrator is explaining that the Congo is full of savagery , and far from civilization. It also shows that the darkness has not gone away. It is a permanent entity, as it truly lies within the heart of man. Brussels The Company hires him immediately because of the death of Fresleven. He then travels to a city described as a "whited sepulcher." At the Company's office, Marlow is let into a waiting room where two women constantly knit black wool. He meets the head of the Company then is directed to the Doctor. He measures Marlow's head. symbol Ivory symbolizes the greediness and destructive side of mankind. Ivory is found numerous times throughout the story to show the impact of greed and how it affects the people in the Congo. "the changes happen inside" Ivory symbolizes the greediness and destructive side of mankind. Ivory is found numerous times throughout the story to show the impact of greed and how it affects the people in the Congo. The Congo Marlow boards the steamer that will take him to the mouth of the Congo. He sees a French ship firing its guns into the dense forest at invisible "enemies." At the mouth of the Congo, Marlow gets passage for thirty miles on a steamer piloted by a Swede. The Swede mocks the men on shore as greedy. The Congo Finally the ship reaches Outer Station. Here he meets the Chief Accountant. The Chief Accountant mentions to Marlow that he might meet Kurtz, who sends in as much ivory as all the others put together. Marlow stumbles upon the Grove of Death where weak and dying native laborers are living out their last moments. Aunt Marlow's Aunt is an idealistic woman who helps Marlow find the job as a steamer pilot for the Company. She favors the ideas of European colonization of Africa because she believes it is a beautiful way to civilize the savages. Fresleven A steamship pilot that got in a fight with the Chief of a tribe and was killed. His death opened the position into which Marlow was hired. Chief Accountant A Company employee that is admired by Marlow because he keeps himself impeccably groomed. Swede A steamship captain who does not like the "government chaps" who care only about money. Marlow hikes with a caravan through the Congo to get to the Central Station, and they reach it after fifteen days. Marlow finds that his steamer has sunk, and after dredging it from the river, takes three months to repair it. He meets the General Manager, who tells him Kurtz is ill. Later he speaks to the brickmaker, who talks highly of Kurtz. Marlow asks him for rivets to help in his ship's repair. The rivets never arrive, but the Eldorado Exploring Expedition arrive instead. The Congo Quote 'And this also,' said Marlow suddenly, 'has been one of the dark places of the earth.' By Marlow saying this, it foreshadows the events to come in his story and the later understanding we receive as to why this novella is titled The Heart of Darkness. Once when various tropical diseases had laid low almost every 'agent' in the station, he was heard to say, 'Men who come out here should have no entrails.' Quote They get back on the steamship to head back to Belgium. Theme: WORK Marlow values work and the "chance to find yourself" that you gain from it. This reflects itself in how Marlow refers to the workers as being of less use than the animals, and how the people who work at the station never seem to actually be getting anything done (or trying to) besides himself and Kurtz. Theme: Colonialism vs Imperialism Marlow's description of the dying natives gives us the real, quite unsettling picture of what the Europeans are doing there. Instead of being a noble mission like his Aunt describes, Marlow is faced with the harsh reality of imperialism and the effects it has on the native people. Theme: Truth vs Untruth Marlow shows his strict distaste for lies. Throughout the remainder of the story, his view towards lies shape the way he perceives, and depicts, the people around him and his attitude toward them. Theme: Hollowness of Civilization Marlow's Aunt reveals the way the general public views European imperialism in Africa. They are told half-truths in order to hide what is being done there, and by doing this they justify it to themselves. And then when they see it, they goad themselves into believing the lies they've already been told. Symbol "Whited Sepulcher" The word "sepulcher" means a place of burial or death. Thus, "whited sepular" refers to Brussels, and to the rampant oppression found within Europe's colonies. A passage in the book of Matthew describes “whited sepulchers” as a beautiful mask to the ugliness and horror of the death inside. Much the same, Belgium's colonialist imperialism enabled cruelty and dehumanization in the name of civilization. Motif: Devils Marlow often refers to men as devils and describes many displeasing things or events as being "devilish" by extension of this. Motif: Black vs White Motif: Emptiness Symbol Women Between the quote from the General Manager, the way Marlow refers one of the men as a "papier-mache Mephistopheles", and many depictions of empty machinery, buildings, etc., emptiness is used quite often. It reflects the theme of the hollowness of society in that everything there has just become a hollow shell of what it once was before. Contrasting images of black and white objects are used to both give depth to the "heart of darkness" that Marlow has submerged himself into, and to give a feeling of goodness and familiarity to the "civilization" that seems to be slowly dwindling as the story progresses. Marlow believes that women live in a world of illusions and untruth of the real world. Women symbolize civilization's ability to hide its hypocrisy and darkness behind pretty ideas. In this case, the pretty ideas are "civilizing" the savages. After three months, the ship is fixed and Marlow travels upriver. The ship's crew consists of pilgrims, the general manager and many cannibals. Symbol Dark and White The Ones Who Walk
Away from Omelas Ursula K. LeGuin In LeGuin's short story, the people in the small town of Omelas hide a dark secret under the exterior of happiness and peace they put off to the world. They sacrifice a child, keeping it in an eternally dark closet where it sits in its own filth, huddling in a corner all for the benefit of the townspeople. This is similar to what the Europeans are doing to the people in the Congo. They exploit and force the Africans into labor for their own benefit, leaving them weak, starving, and dying. Heart of Darkness paradoxes the common thought of white meaning good and dark as evil. Distinguishing evil and good does not apply to this novella because everyone in the story has their own evils. Rather, white represents fog and blindness to the atrocities in Africa and dark represents the African jungle. Symbol The River Marlow is absorbed in his work and says he feels the "mysterious stillness" of nature watching him. Marlow feels a " kinship with the wild and passionate uproar" of the natives, because he believes all men have primitive origins. Marlow's description of his bond with the natives can also describe his preference to "simpler" beings like the donkeys and the cannibals previously mentioned. plot plot plot plot Because of the previous attack, the crew believed that the Inner Station had been attacked and that Kurtz is dead. The pilgrims brag about how many natives they shot, but Marlow knows they shot too high to kill any of the savages. This elaborates on the theme of blindness, as the pilgrims' smoke from their guns hide the savages. Marlow reaches the Inner station to see that it has not been attacked. He meets a Russian trader that claims was the owner of the hut. The River and Europeans appear to hare the same sentiment that the Europeans don't really "belong". This is illustrated by the fact that the Congo allows them to pass through Africa with limited physical interaction with the continent itself, and that traveling upriver is a challenging, while downriver back to "civilization" is relatively easy. Marlow's personal struggles mirror the river's flow; conflict while moving upstream to Kurtz, and acceptance when returning downstream. Close to Kurtz's station, Marlow finds a hut. Inside the hut he finds a book on sailing. The General Manager believes the hut belongs to the man he wants to hang. Marlow is amazed by the book because it has many notes that must have taken effort to both analyze the book and add on to it. In the morning, the crew is surrounded by screaming natives and a thick white fog. The pilgrims are frightened and stand by with their rifles, but the fog allows the natives to remain unseen. After two hours, the fog vanishes and they continue upstream . Marlow considers the thought of Kurtz being dead and is deeply disappointed. He has lost his hope. He then throws the shoes overboard. Marlow's search for truth is over with the death of Kurtz. Marlow tries to express his feeling of despair from the realization that he will never meet Kurtz to the men of the ship to no avail. They simply cannot understand the way he feels as their civilized ways shroud their view of his loss. Symbol Ivory Ivory represents greed and power. Ivory and Kurtz go hand-in-hand because the more ivory he brings in, the more power and money he receives. A theme seen here is the power of words. The Russian is captivated by Kurtz, simply due tothei talks out in the jungle. As Marlow when Marlow says the the Trader was fascinated by talks with Kurtz, where was probably the only one who spoke because he likes an audience. “The word ‘ivory’ rang in the air, was whispered, was sighed. You would think they were praying to it. A taint of imbecile rapacity blew through it all, like a whiff from some corpse. By Jove! I’ve never seen anything so unreal in my life. And outside, the silent wilderness surrounding this cleared speck on the earth struck me as something great and invincible, like evil or truth, waiting patiently for the passing away of this fantastic invasion.” Quote These events show the idea of Kurtz being a god. While he is dying, he still has his voice. This enforces the idea that Kurtz is god to the natives and a voice throughout the story. Symbols , Motifs
and Themes Symbols , Motifs
and Themes Symbols , Motifs
and Themes Motif Symbols , Motifs
and Themes Here, we find out that ivory is no longer just an elephant's tusk, but symbolic because it represents greed and power. The people who work for the Company want to advance in their positions and want to obtain a lot of money. Ivory is almost considered to be an object of worship. Because of the white man’s pursuit of ivory, elephants and native Africans both die. Death and greed are both part of a timeless evil, yet they are petty in the scheme of the greater order of the natural world. This ties into the theme of fascination of the abomination. fog that obscures vision. There is white fog throughout the story as well gunsmoke. These give imagery to the figurative blindness theme. Here on the deathbed of Kurtz, he utters "the horror, the horror". It is possible that Marlow calls this a moral victory because he believes Kurtz now realizes the evil he has done. This can go with the figurative blindness theme. It can also go with th idea that Kurtz as a god Perhaps Kurtz had been a god to the natives for so long, he now believed he was immortal. Perhaps he is horrified at the fact he is actually dying. This also goes along with the madness theme, because now Kurtz believes he is immortal, due to madness from the Congo. Civilization vs. Savagery- By human nature connecting to the natives, Marlow suggests that savagery is what is natural and civilization is a façade. Themes Wuthering
Heights Emily Bronte "An Iquiry to Some Points of Seamanship"- the book Marlow finds is a repetition of the theme of the value of work. Marlow admires the dedication the owner of the book had to read and take notes on an uninteresting topic. Heart of Darkness and Wuthering Heights both contain the theme of fascination with the abomination. In Wuthering Heights, Catherine Earnshaw is torn between Heathcliff and Edgar Linton. Though married to Edgar, she is still longs to be with Heathcliff. In Heart of Darkness, Marlow wants to be disgusted by the truths behind Kurtz and his character, but he can't help but commend him on his success and be fascinated about who he truly is. and Motif The White Fog- the white fog surrounding the pilgrims is symbolic of the blindness and misunderstanding they experience when in the Congo. Symbol As the "voice" Kurtz is a symbol of a spiritual character. While it is not a direct connection to any certain religion, Kurtz does symbolizes a god and is a god figure. He is also the symbol of power. The White Smoke- see the white fog The Power of Words- When speaking of Kurtz, The Russian Trader reveals he too is under the spell of his words. A Good Man is Hard to Find Flannery O'Conner In "A Good Man is Hard to Find," it said in the retaurant that there are very few good men left in the world, and it is hard to find one. This idea can be seen in Heart of Darkness. It is hard to find a good man, because the darkness lies in the human heart. AS the story expresses, there are no truly good people in the world. All men are either hypocrites, or just outright cruel, while women are blinded by allusion. Heart of Darkness expresses the idea that there are no good men. Marlow proceeds to say that Kurtz hadn't died. This causes him to analyze Kurtz and express his thoughts on him. He claims Kurtz treats everything as a possession and that the solitude of the jungle changed Kurtz into a dark figure who accepts sacrifices in his honor. Marlow goes on to tell about Kurtz's argument that as white men are treated as gods to the natives, it is their responsibility to help them. Kurtz later said “Exterminate all the brutes.” Quote Quote The pilgrims fire their guns into the bush, creating smoke that impairs Marlow’s vision. The so-called “civilized” colonists blind themselves. The helmsmen stops steering the steamship in order to kill natives. He's hit with a spear and dies on the floor as a pilgrim walks in bearing a message from the General Manager. The fact that the African helmsmen leaves his work to kill African natives is an example of the bad side of colonialism. The shoes that are thrown overboard represent hope. Upon Marlow's thinking that Kurtz is dead, he throws the shoes overboard. This is symbolic of his loss of hope. White Fog The Value of Work- The helmsman was a symbol for the value of work. Shoes- Symbol for hope (Explained in plot summary) “In a few days the Eldorado Expedition went into the patient wilderness, that closed upon it as the sea closes over a diver. Long afterwards the news came that all the donkeys were dead. I know nothing as to the fate of the less valuable animals. They, no doubt, like the rest of us, found what they deserved. I did not inquire.” This is another example of Marlow's view of humans as lesser animals. This view was presented with the animal characteristics he gave humans in Part 1. "I tell you,” he cried, “this man has enlarged my mind.” This quote is said the Russian Trader about Kurtz. The quote both reveals his relationship with Kurtz as a follower andthe fact that he is mad. The "enlarging of the mind" is mentioned by the doctor in part one as a sign of madness Quote "'It was impossible not to--'

'Love him,' she finished eagerly, silencing me into an appalled dumbness. 'How true! how true! But when you think that no one knew him so well as I! I had all his noble confidence. I knew him best.'" This quote shows that Kurtz had a spell over people even in his life before the Congo. It is also ironic in that the Intended believes she knows Kurtz, but probably would not recognize the man he had become. This adds to the idea that women live in their own world, in allusions. On the Nellie Belgium Steamship, ocean Steamship, ocean Ship/Inner Station Steamship, ocean Steamship, ocean Inner Station Inner Station Theme Belgium Belgium Hamlet William Shakespeare Another way this relates to Hamlet is the comment on the frailty of woman. Hamlet comments that women are frail and hypocrites, hiding behind make up. Conrad expresses that women are so weak they must live in their own world, in allusions, so that they are protected from the darkness and the truth behind the hypocrisy of man. Night Eli Wiesel The story can connect to Night. Night is true autobiography about a boy who survived the Holocaust. Often, the treatment of African natives during imperialism has been called the African Holocaust.
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