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Animals

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Tiffany LeNeave

on 2 March 2016

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Transcript of Animals

Animals

How do w organize the different organisms in our world?
What are all living things made up of?
What are the cell parts?
Plant Cell

Cell
Two types of cells
Prokaryotic
Cells that do not have a nucleus
Examples: bacteria
Eukaryotic cell
Cells with a nucleus
Examples: animal and plant cells
Cell Membrane-
the thin layer of protein and fat that surrounds the cell. The cell membrane is semipermeable, allowing some substances to pass into the cell and blocking others.
cytoplasm - the jellylike material outside the cell nucleus in which the organelles are located.
a specialized part of a cell; analogous to an organ; "the first organelle to be identified was the nucleus"
Organelle
Vacuole
fluid-filled, membrane-surrounded cavities inside a cell. The vacuole fills with food being digested and waste material that is on its way out of the cell.
Like fat
controls many of the functions of the cell and contains DNA. The nucleus is surrounded by the nuclear membrane.
Nucleus
When else have we heard the term nucleus? How are they alike ?
microscopic organisms that make up everything
powerhouses of the cell. They are organelles that act like a digestive system that takes in nutrients, breaks them down, and creates energy for the cell
Mitochondria
holds enzymes, is to digest things. They might be used to digest food or break down the cell when it dies
Lysosomes
are the protein builders
Ribosomes
Golgi Body
gathers simple molecules and combines them to make molecules that are more complex. It then takes those big molecules, packages them in vesicles, and either stores them for later use or sends them out of the cell.



While the function of the nucleus is to act as the cell brain, the ER functions as a packaging system. It does not work alone. The ER works closely with the Golgi apparatus, ribososmes,
Smooth ER has its purpose in the cell. It acts as a storage organelle. It is important in the creation and storage of steroids
Rough E.R breaks down proteins
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Cell Wall
are made of specialized sugars called cellulose. Cellulose provides a protected framework for a plant cell to survive.
Chloroplast
Chloroplasts are the food producers of the cell.
Photosynthesis
Process of turning sunlight into food for plants.
How do things pass through the cell membrane?
Osmosis- process where materials pass through semipermeable membranes
Five Kingdoms
Animal
Plant
Monara (Bacteria)
Fungi
Protist

Protists
most are unicellular;
some have cell walls
absorbs, ingest, or photosynthesize food
no nervous system
some locomotion
The primary difference between protists and monera is that protists are more complex, having a nucleus.
Types:
Algae
Amoebas
Euglena
FACTS
Many protists act as pathogens to humans. This means they cause diseases.
The disease malaria is caused by the protist Plasmodium falciparum.
Where can you find protists

In animals (parasites)
protists are also tooth past (dead ones) needed to get food particles off teeth.
Moneran
Most unicellular some multi
no nervous system
some have locomotion
no define nucleus
missing many organelles
Autotrophs are able to create their own food, similar to plants.
Heterotrophs cannot create their own food, and so must rely on autotrophs as their food source.
some are helpful some are harmful
Monerans allow us to break down food and used for medicine and cheese.
others cause disease, destroy healthy cells and decay fruits and vegetable
Examples:
bacteria,
blue-green bacteria (cyanobacteria)
viruses
Fungi
can be unicellular or multicellular
not capable of photosynthesis
Decomposers
many have different purposes such for making bread, wine and antibiotics
http://app.discoveryeducation.com/search?Ntt=fungi#selItemsPerPage=60&intCurrentPage=0&No=0&N=4294939055&Ne=&Ntt=fungi&Ns=&Nr=&browseFilter=&indexVersion=&Ntk=All&Ntx=mode%252Bmatchallpartial
Examples:
toadstool
puffballs
molds
yest
feed on living and non living
Athletes foot feeds off skin on your foot
Fungi absorb nutrients from plants or animals

Difference between Toadstool and Mushroom
Toadstool- poisonous
Mushroom- edible
The food gathering part of a fungus is made up of either filamentous, hollow, branched tubes called mycelium or are single cells called yeast through
absorption
spores reproduce the fungus in the form of mycelium or yeast cells
Plants
multicellular
produces its own food through photosynthesis
Green comes from chlorophyll in chloroplast
in order to go through photosynthesis you need chlorophyl, sun light and carbon dioxide
Plants reproduce, or make more plants, through flowers. The flowers have pollen. When the pollen spreads to other plants, it produces fruit and seeds. The seeds make new plants.
Bees or the wind pollinate most plants.
Once seeds form, the wind or animals carry them to new places to grow.
Some plants are carnivorous. They eat insects.
Vascular
Vascular means - having tubes
vascular plants have tubes, roots, stems, leaves
they stand tall
tubes allow nutrients to travel throughout the plant
Non- Vascular
Plants that do not have tubes, roots or stems
moss, liverwort
soak up water like a sponge
smaller in size
Plant survival traits:

Defenses
Some have thorns or spines.
Others have foul-tasting poisons in their leaves.
Stinging nettle leaves are covered in fine hairs that are filled with poison. can pierce flesh and inject the poison from the hollow hair
Examples:
Squash smell offends deer
cactus has thorns
linalool - smells good taste bad
Extreme Temp.
alpines, mountain plants have to cope with strong sunshine, penetrating frost, and bitterly cold winds. Water may be scarce or frozen soil.
Alpines grow in dense cushions, which makes them less exposed.
Fine hairs on their leaves reduce water loss and protect them from sun damage.


Xerophyte - a dry arid habitat; a desert plant.
bearberry- extreme cold
Living on another pant
Plants that fix themselves to other plants like this, but do not draw food from them, are called


Bromeliad
takes water
from tree
Spanish Moss
Halophyts
plants that have adapted to living in salty enviornments
plants that have swollen, fleshy parts in which they store water.
Example: cacti like this one. A cactus stores water in its stem and can cope with the driest climates. The thick green stem is also used for photosynthesis, as the leaves have been modified into spines.


Water Stores
Ephemerals are plants that carpet a desert after rare rainfall. In the space of a few days, they sprout, grow, flower, and produce seeds. The seeds of some ephemerals are coated in a chemical that prevents germination until rain has washed the chemical away.


Desert Blooms
grow along tropical coasts. Their roots take in salt from the seawater. The salt is carried in the tree’s sap up to old leaves, which are then shed, or to living leaves, which have glands that excrete the salt.
have arching roots that are exposed at low tide.
These roots have breathing pores for taking in oxygen from the air.
Tropical Man Grove
Animals
multicellular.
heterotrophic, obtaining their energy by consuming energy-releasing food substances..
made up of cells that do not have cell walls.
capable of motion in some stage of their lives.
able to respond quickly to external stimuli as a result of nerve cells, muscle or contractile tissue, or both.
Vertebrates VS Invertebrates
Vertebrate- has a spine/ backbone
Invertebrate- no spine/backbone
Vertebrates
most advanced organisms on Earth.
The traits
spinal cords, vertebrae,
and notochords. It's all about having a series of nerves along your back (dorsal side).
the backbones and a rod of cartilage called the notochord.
5 Types of Vertebrates
Mammals
Birds
Fish
Amphibians
Reptile
Mammals
Are vertebrates
Are endothermic. Also known as “warm-blooded,” endothermic animals regulate their own body temperate which allows them to live in almost every climate on Earth.
Breaths air
Have hair on their bodies.
Produce milk to feed their babies. This allows them to spend more time with their young and teach them important skills they need to survive on their own.
baby grows inside mom
Whales
Elephants
Dog
Monkey

Examples
Birds
http://app.discoveryeducation.com/search?Ntt=mammals#selItemsPerPage=60&intCurrentPage=0&No=0&N=4294939055&Ne=18417&Ntt=mammals&Ns=&Nr=&browseFilter=&indexVersion=&Ntk=All&Ntx=mode%252Bmatchallpartial
Are vertebrates (which means they have a backbone or spine)
Are endothermic. Also known as “warm-blooded,” endothermic animals regulate their own body temperature which allows them to live in almost every climate on earth.
Have feathers
Lay eggs with hard, waterproof shells. The parent birds incubate the eggs until they hatch, and care for their young.
Breath Air
Examples
Robin
Cardinal
Eagle
Ostrich
Penguin
Reptiles
Are vertebrates (which means they have a backbone or spine)
Are ectothermic. Also known as “cold-blooded,” ectothermic animals cannot regulate their own body heat, so they depend on warmth from sunlight to become warm and active. If they get too hot, they have to find shade or a burrow to help them cool down.
Are covered with scales
Have lungs for breathing air
Examples
Boa constrictor
Chameleon
Bearded Dragon
Sea Turtle
Amphibians
Are vertebrates (which means they have a backbone or spine)
Are ectothermic. Also known as “cold-blooded,” ectothermic animals cannot regulate their own body heat, so they depend on warmth from sunlight to become warm and active. If they get too hot, they have to find shade or a burrow to help them cool down.
Breathe through their skin.
covered with skin
Go through metamorphosis. Young amphibians hatch from eggs, but do not look like their parents. As they develop, their body shape changes.
Examples
Salamander
Frog
newt
Toad
Fish
-Body covered with scales
-breaths with gills- take oxygen out of water
-lays eggs
- Cold blooded
-live in salt and fresh water
Examples
Clown Fish
Angle Fish
Cat Fish
Carp
Types of invertebrates
Sponges
Cnidarians
Worms
Echinoderms
Arthropods
Mollusc
Sponges
have irregular bodies and no symmetry
can not move attach to rocks
filter seawater and retain the nutritive substances for food
Cnidarians
They have jelly-like bodies with radial symetry
They have tentacles which can sting you
Some attach to rocks others move
Examples_ Jelly fish anemone
Worms
They have soft bodies with bilateral symmetry
some cylindrical. others flat
some aquatic (water) terrestrial (land) others parasites (live off another animal
Ex; Ring worm earth worm tape worm
Echinoderms
five-way symmetry
skeleton made of hard plates
covered with think skin
all marine
star fish
sea urchin
Arthropods
bilateral symmetry
bodies covered by articulated exoskeleton-like armor
exoskeleton moults when they grow
have antenna
some have compound eyes ( one large eye made up of thousands of simpler eyes)
some live in land others water
Groups of Arthropods
insects arachnids
crustaceans
myriapods

Insects
3 part body: Head Thorax, and abdomen
heads have 2 eyes mouth and 2 antennae
6 legs
some have wings
live in different habitats eat different types of food
produce substances some are useful others are harmful
Examples : fly mosquito ant cicadas
Arachnids
body has 2 parts: abdomen cephlothorax
8 legs
most live on land
some are carnivorous
black widow, brown recluse, grand daddy long leg
Crustaceans
10 legs 2 pairs of antennae and compound eyes
body in 2 parts abdomen cephalothorax
most aquatic
Ex: crab, hermit, lobster, shrimp,
Myriapods
Have long bodies made up of identical segments
Each segment has one or two pairs of legs
head has a pair of short antennae
Examples: centipede millipede
Mollusc
Have soft bodies
bilateral symmetry
covered with one or two shells
more are aquatic few live on land
Gastropods
have 4 tentacles with sense organs in the head
single foot
herbivores
some aqutic
spiral shells
EX: snail, slug
Bivalves
have 2 articulated valves.
some move around others attach to rocks
filter saltwater to obtain food
examples: clams muscles scallops
Cephalopods
8-10 tentacles
marine
expel jets of water to move
carnivorous
Examples Squid Octopus
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