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Respiratory System

Mechanisms of Breathing
by

Agster

on 20 December 2013

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Transcript of Respiratory System

Active phase of ventilation

The Respiratory System
Introduction
Respiratory Volumes
Inspiration and Expiration
Inspiration
Expiration
Behavioural Control of Ventilation
What happens when you hold your breath?
AND NOW FOR A SUPER FUN GAME
AND NOW FOR A SUPER FUN GAME
Mechanisms of Breathing
Inspiration
Respiratory Volumes
When we are normally relaxed, there is only a small amount of air that moves in and out with every breath
Respiratory Volumes continued
To increase vital capacity increase the amount you breathe in and out
To increase inspiration (breathing in) expand the chest and lower the diaphragm

Respiratory Volumes
In order to increase the air expired (breathed out)
contract the abdominal and intercostal muscles


Respiratory Volumes
In average adults about 70% of the tidal volume reaches the alveoli, 30% will stay in the airways. The airways contain dead-air space because they're not used for gas exchanged.
To ensure you obtain the most possible air to reach the lungs, breathe deeply and slowly

Summary:
Tidal Volume-
Air moved in and out when relaxed (normally)
Vital Capacity-
Maximum air able to inhale plus maximum that can be moved in and out in one breath
Inspiratory Reserve Volume-

The volume of air that can be forced into the lungs after a normal breath
Expiration Reserve Volume-

The maximum volume that can be forced out after a normal breath
Residual Volume-
The air that remains in the lungs after a deep exhale, does not play a role in gas exchange because its oxygen is depleted
Expiration
Breathing out
Either
PASSIVE
or
ACTIVE
, depending on the level of respiratory activity
When expiration is active, it may involve one or more of the following mucles:
The
INTERNAL INTERCOSTAL
muscle and
TRANSVERSUS THORACIS
muscle depress the ribs and reduce the width and depth of the
THORACIC CAVITY
The abdominal muscle, including the
EXTERNAL
and
INTERNAL OBLIQUE
,
TRANSVERSUS ABDOMINIS
, and
RECTUS ABDOMINIS
muscles, can assist the internal intercostal in exhalation by compressing the abdomen and forcing the
DIAPHRAGM
upward.
Control of Ventilation
Mechanical Control of Ventilation
Mechanical - autonomic; involuntary
- controlled by the
Medulla Oblongata
Behavioural - autopilot is turned-off (voluntary)
- body control: diaphragm & thoracic cavity
Adults' breathing rate:
12 to 20 ventilations per minute
Respiratory Center
- breathing center
- controls Rhythm of Ventilation
- location: Medulla Oblongata
Breathing In
Diaphragm and external intercostal muscles contract.
Alveolar pressure < atmospheric pressure = air rushing into the airways and alveoli.
*AIR DOES NOT FORCE LUNGS OPEN
- continuation of spinal cord
- lowest part of the brain stem
- control centre for the HEART
& LUNGS
Example:
HEART: Medulla Oblangata
controls the extrinsic beat of the
heart --> sympathetic and
parasympathetic

EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME:

(
1,400ml) when the force of expiration is increased, following the normal tidal volume
continuation...
Respiratory Center:
- occurrence of respiration by automatically sending impulses to the diaphragm phrenic nerve; and to the intercostal muscles intercostal nerve
Page Reference: 291
- STOP: neuronal signals to the diaphragm and the ribcage -- diaphragm relaxes (dome shape)
- automatic control: rate and depth of breathing
influenced by NERVOUS and CHEMICAL input.

EXPIRATION
occurs
Chemical Input:
Respiratory Center:
- directly sensitive to CO2 and H+ levels in the blood
When CO2 and H+ , breathing rate & depth
Chemoreceptors:
Aortic & Carotid Bodies -- sensitive
to the Oxygen level in the blood
O2
rate and depth of BREATHING
The
TIDAL VOLUME
is the amount of air which is 500ml, normally moved in and out when we breathe
For example:
Breathing Exercises for Singing
Medulla Oblangata controlled breathing: autopilot OFF
quicker inhalation; slower exhalation
proper posture
- slouching or rigidity: causes the diaphragm to lock and prevents from getting a correct breath for singing. If your breathing and your posture work together as a team, you can improve your singing.
Cerebrum:
responsible for the voluntary action
When the force of inspiration is increased, the volume passes normal tidal volume by approximately 2,900ml.
INSPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME:
We are able to increase the amount of air we intake and expel. The maximum we are able to intake plus the maximum volume that can be expelled in single breath is called
VITAL CAPACITY
In the upcoming figure, even after deep exhale of breath there is about 1,000ml of air that will stay in the lungs. This air that remains in the lungs is called
RESIDUAL VOLUME
. The air cannot be used in gas exchange because all of its oxygen has been depleted.
Summary of events during the ‘Control of Ventilation’:
Respiratory Center sends excitatory message to diaphragm and the rib muscles
Chest expands as diaphragm goes down and rib cage goes out
Air comes rushing in as lungs expand
Expanded lungs send message to respiratory system
Respiratory center stops sending messages to diaphragm and rib muscles
Diaphragm becomes dome-shaped and rib muscles relax
Air goes rushing out as lungs recoil

RESIDUAL VOLUME
In certain lung diseases the residual volume will build up because it is harder to empty out the lungs. Therefore, the vital capacity is smaller since the lungs have more residual volume.
Connection to lung disease:
The lungs are already opened due to the partial vacuum that was created.
Expiratory Questions:
1.) Expiration can be ________ or _______.
2.) Name two muscles that are involved in active expiration
"Check in"
Inspiration Questions:
1.) Inspiration is ________ but the flow of air into the alveoli is ________.
2.) When the diaphragm is relaxed, it is __________ shaped.
3.) True or False. The atmospheric pressure is higher than the alveoli pressure when you breathe in.
4.) Why is Carbon Monoxide poisonous to humans?
Summary of Mechanisms of Breathing
3 Important Key Points:
1. There is a continuous flow of air from the pharynx to the alveoli of the lungs.

2. There are intercostal muscles that lie-in between your ribs.

3. The lungs stick to the thoracic wall through the pleura.
Bonus Question:
It is called the vital capacity because life naturally is dependent on breathing. The more you can breathe, the better off you are.
Conclusion

Terms you need to remember from respiratory volumes:

Tidal Volume-
Air moved in and out when relaxed
Vital Capacity-

Maximum air able to inhale plus maximum that can be moved in and out in one breath
Inspiratory Reserve Volume-

Volume of air that can be forced into the lungs after a normal breath
Expiration Reserve Volume-

Maximum volume that can be forced out after a normal breath
Residual Volume-

The air that remains in the lungs after a deep breathe

Conclusion Continued...
Three important key points:
1. Continuous flow of air from pharynx to alveoli of lungs.
2.
Intercostal muscles
in between the ribs.
3. Lungs stick to the thoracic wall through pleura.

Inspiration- Inhalation
Expiration- Exhalation

Page reference: 298 (Fig. 15.8)
For a STANLEY CUP price and a chance to take a picture with the STANLEY CUP, summarize all the subtopics by giving two important points each:
Respiratory Volume
Inhalation and Exhalation
Control of Ventilation
Full transcript