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2013 T-SHIRT LIFE CYCLE

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Gemma Jones

on 30 April 2015

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Transcript of 2013 T-SHIRT LIFE CYCLE

industrial manufacturer
Aldicarb
'highly toxic' to samll
mammals
Seeds
Fertilisers
Water
Ploughing
Tractors
Raw
Fuel
T-shirt production
Retail
Use
Disposal
Yarn
Knitting
Pre-treatment
Dye
Finishing
Cut and sew
Packaging
Plastic bag
Cardboard outer
Pallet
Haimen Coal Power Station
Guangdong Province
South Coast China

Mineral
oils
Water
Wash
Acid
SyntheticDye
(red)
Water
Antigungal
Agents
Waste
Fuel
Fuel
Carbon dioxide
Nitrous Oxide
Sulphur dioxide
Carbon dioxide
Nitrous oxide
Sulphur dioxide
Fiddlers Ferry Coal Power Station
Warrington

Wash
Dry
Iron
Carbon dioxide
Nitrous oxide
Sulphur dioxide
Methane
Carbon dioxide
Nitrous oxide
Methane
Carbon dioxide
Nitrous oxide
Sulphur dioxide
Methane

Detergents
Nitrous oxides
(laughing gas)
Waste water

3/4 of all US cotton seeds are genetically modified (Bt Cotton) to resist insect pests, soil borne fungal disease and reduce water needed for irrigation.
Aldicarb
Oil Well
Exxon Mobil
Andrews, Texas
Crude oil is projected to remain the single biggest source of energy and vital to transport according Exxon Mobil
Oil Refinery
Exxon Mobil
Baytown, Texas
MONSTANTO
Aiken, Texas
About 2 billion pounds of artificial fertiliser (NPK) are applied to cotton in US each year, taking 1/3 pound of fertiliser per pound of cotton, which is needed to make a T-shirt.
When the Cotton plant grows sequestrates (captures) carbon equal. Globally, Cotton Plantations, sequestrate carbon equivalent to 7.5 million passengers on the road.
Modern techniques are saving a billion litres of tractor fuel and reducing other inputs.
Pesticides
Over 50 million pounds are sprayed on cotton in US annually. Insecticides kill insects, and 1/4 of all insecticides in the world are sprayed on cotton. Aldicarb is the most toxic substance used on cotton and this is being phased out by 2018.
N
Nitrogen
Phosphate rock
Cotton
Balls

Cotton
Lint

Cotton
Lint

Cotton
Bale

Growth
Harvest
Sun

Land

Rich
Soil

Agriculture
U.S.A
Eugene Bednarz Cotton Farm
Texas
Over 60% of US Cotton is produced without irrigation
but rain water. The plant is drought resistant and can adapt to water stress with slower growth.
Defoliating
Agents

These chemicals are sprayed so the leaves of the cotton plant dry and fell off at the same time so the grower can harvest the balls using the picker machine in one go.
They need a long, sunny growing period with at least 160 frost free days
Self-Pollinated

Ploughed Land releases
captured CO2 in the land to the atmosphere
Carbon dioxide
Soil
Sequestration

Macro-Nutrients
K
Potassium
Micro-Nutrients
Nitrogen fertilisers give off nitrous oxide, (laughing gas). But here it is no laughing matter as each molecule is 300X more potent than carbon dioxide in Global Warming. It is a major contributor to Global Warming - contibuting over a third of all farming's contribution.
Nitrogen Tool http://www.n-print.org/sites/n-print.org/files/reg_vis/tool.php
trace elements
Cu
Copper
Mg
Magnesium
Mn
Manganese
Zn
Zinc
Cl
Chlorine
Copper Mine
El Chino Mine
New Mexico, United States
More than 96% of all copper ever mined and smelted has been extracted since 1900, and more than half was extracted in only the last 24 years.
Various estimates of existing copper reserves available for mining vary from 25 years to 60 years
Pick Copper
Recycled
Copper
Recycling is a major source of copper in the modern world
Manganese mine

Hotazel
South Africa
About 80% of the known
world manganese resources
are found in South Africa
Red Dog Mine
Alaska
Zinc Mine
Zinc is the fourth most common metal in use, trailing only iron, aluminium, and copper with an annual production of about 12 million tonnes. As a result human-induced emissions zinc exceed natural release by a factor of 20 to 1.

The production for sulphidic zinc ores produces large amounts of sulfur dioxide and cadmium vapour. Smelter slag and other residues of process also contain significant amounts of heavy metals.

After increasing 10-fold from 1850, zinc emissions peaked at 3.4 million tonnes per year in the 1980s but declined to 2.7 million tonnes in the 1990s. However a 2005 study of the Arctic troposphere found that the concentrations of zinc there did not reflect the decline.

Waste dumps of spoil from past zinc mining operations leach significant amounts of zinc but also cadmium and as a result contaminate the surrounding rivers.

Bingham Canyon Mine
Alaska
Salt Mine
Better management systems, including nutrient placement, are producing less water runoff
Water

Cotton
Material
Thidiazuron

Dimethipin

Tribufos

None
of these agents are in the top 100 pesticides of concern.
Plane
From burnt fuel
Loose
Soil

Cotton Pest
Free

Warm
Soil

Sowing

Mechanical
Planter
Mechanical
Cotton Picker

When the plants demand it, when available, additional water is delivered to the fields.
Efficient
Irrigation
System



Sprinkler
Irrigation



Drip
Irrigation

Buried tubing releases water into the soil beneath the plant.
It is much like lawn sprinklers where pressurized water is sprayed out over an area.
Plane
http://www.cottonsjourney.com/Storyofcotton/print.asp
Energy
Electricity
Fayette
Coal Power Station
Fayette , Texas
Black Thunder Coal Mine
Powder River Basin, Wyoming
40% of American coal comes from the Powder River Basin Coal Mines and almost all of it is burned to generate electricity.
Energy
Fuel
Oil Well
Exxon Mobil
Andrews, Texas
Oil Refinery
Exxon Mobil
Baytown, Texas
Electricity
Fayette
Coal Power Station
Fayette , Texas
Black Thunder Coal Mine
Powder River Basin, Wyoming
Energy
Fuel
Oil Well
Exxon Mobil
Andrews, Texas
Oil Refinery
Exxon Mobil
Baytown, Texas
Electricity
Fayette
Coal Power Station
Fayette , Texas
Black Thunder Coal Mine
Powder River Basin, Wyoming
Module
Builder

The cotton dumped from the picker onto the ground is compressed by a Module Builder, hydraulically, to form a module, a tightly pressed stack of cotton. Each module holds 12-14 bales. This module can be left in the field and hauled
to the gin’s storage yard.
Automated
Gin House
http://www.sallyaitken.com/2012/01/is-cotton-sustainable-part-9-the-cotton-gin/
The process is computer controlled and once the technicians to program the computer systems, they merely stand by and monitor the process.
Lumes Lane Landfill
Salford
run by Biffa
England
England
China
Houston
Docks
Hong Kong
Docks
Hong Kong
Docks
London
Port
Shipping is a major cause of harmful air pollution in Europe. Due to its low cost, most large cargo vessels are powered by bunker fuel also known as Heavy Fuel Oil which contains higher sulphur levels than diesel. This level of pollution is accelerating: with bunker fuel consumption at 278 million tonnes per year in 2001, it is projected to be at 500 million tonnes per year in 2020.
Sulphur dioxide
Concentrations of zinc as low as 2 ppm reduces the amount of oxygen that fish can carry in their blood.
Levels of zinc in rivers flowing through industrial or mining areas can be as high as 20 parts per million (ppm). Concentrations of zinc as low as 2 ppm adversely affects the amount of oxygen that fish can carry in their blood. However sewage treatment greatly reduces these amounts; treatment along the River Rhine, for example, has decreased zinc levels by almost one thousand times to 50 parts per billion (ppb).
Heavy metal
pollution
Waste
Incinerators
Cadmium Vapour
Cadmium can affect the kidneys or liver
and the skin, bones, or teeth
Cadmium
Lead and Zinc
Dust
Cadmium, lead and zinc are released in tiny particulates as dust from rubber tires on road surfaces; the small size allows these toxic metals to rise on the wind to be inhaled, or transported onto topsoil or edible plants.
electricity
Datong Coal Mine
Shanxi Province
North East China

electricity
New US technologies use less land, energy (saving 1 billion litre tractor fuel/yr) & pesticides than 20 years ago.
US cotton crop removes 5- 6 million tonnes of CO2 annually
Fuel
Seria Oil Refinery
Sungai Bera
Brunei

Offshore Oil Field
Seria, Brunei
Brunei Shell Petroleum (BSP) Company Limited

In 1953 a major oil well blowout , which resulted in well liquids flowing out of fissures in the ground.
Water
The open-air oil water treatment facility at the Sungai Bera Holding Basin has since been discontinued due to environmental reasons
Dongguan Fuquan
Garment Co
Guangdong Province
Dongguan Shatin Lake Side
Textiles Printing &Dyeing Co., Ltd.
Guangdong Province
Dongguan Fuquan
Garment Co
Guangdong Province
Dungeness Nuclear
Power Station
Kent

The water quality is poor and this can be identified by the presence of pollution-tolerant invertebrates such leeches and worms.

The water is high in ammonia and alum due to the mordants used to fix the dye in the cotton fabric. The levels of ammonia in particular may be toxic and might cause deaths of aquatic wildlife particularly if the flow of the river is low as the ammonia is not oxidised to the less harmful nitrate.
electricity
Water Vapour
Primark
Distribution
Centre

Thrapston
Northamptonshire
Primark
Store

Manchester
Lancashire
electricity
Nuclear Waste
Uranium
U3O8

Oil Well
Majnoon Oil Well, Basra, Iraq
Shell Company Limited

Oil Refinery
Stanlow Refinery
Runcorn

Petrol / Diesel
Uranium Mine
South Inkai Mine

in situ recovery uranium mine
or In-situ leaching (ISL)
Water
native groundwater
in the ore body
Complexing Agent
+
+
an oxidant
In-situ leaching (ISL), also known as solution mining, or in-situ recovery (ISR) in North America, involves leaving the ore where it is in the ground, and recovering the minerals from it by dissolving them and pumping the pregnant solution to the surface where the minerals can be recovered.
no tailings
or waste rock
generated

located so that they do not contaminate ground water away from the ore body
little surface
disturbance

nuclear
reprocessing
site

Sellafield, Seascale
Cumbria, England
operated by Sellafield Ltd.
Advanced Gas-cooled Reactors (AGR)
Water
These processes, including the associated cooling ponds, require considerable amounts of water and the licence to extract water from lake Wast Water
in the Lake District
National Park
Recycled
Uranium
Recycled
Plutonium
manufacture of
new nuclear fuel
manufacture of mixed oxide fuel
(MOX) for thermal reactors
Fission
Products
Nuclear Waste
high-level radioactive waste
low-level radioactive waste
flocculation process to remove radioactivity from liquid effluent
discharged
to the
Irish Sea
Highly Active Liquor Evaporation and Storage
The vitrification plant
It conditions nuclear waste streams
prior to transfer to the Waste Vitrification Plant
seals high-level radioactive waste in glass
air-cooled storage facilities
total storage capacity is 8000 containers, and 5000 containers have been stored to 2010
60%
Waste
seeds
animal feed
compost
fertiliser
growing
edible mushrooms
http://fungus.org.uk/nwfg/volv.htm
Oil Refinery
Brunei
gas ethylene
by product of oil
polymers,
chains of ethylene molecules called polyethylene
These are made into pellets which are used by plastic manufacturers to produce a range of items, including plastic bags.
Coarse
Cotton
Paper
Ruiquan Packing
Industrial Co., Ltd.
Guangdong Province,
China
Pulp Mill
Indah Kiat Perawang
Asia Pulp & Paper (APP)
Indonesia
Kampar peninsula, one of the world's largest contiguous tropical peat swamp forests, with more carbon per hectare than any other ecosystem on Earth.
Paper Retailer
Honk Kong
Water
Water
http://www.beachapedia.org/Pulp_Mills?ymvhy=931102
Chemicals
Sulfur oxide
Particulate Matter
Nuclear Fuel Production
Salwick, near Preston
Lancashire, England
operated by
Springfields Fuels Limited
Digestion
Wood Chips
caustic soda (sodium hydroxide)
Hydrogen
peroxides
Bleaching
Hydrosulfites
Oxygen
Hydrogen
Ozone
Peracetic acid
sodium hypochlorite
chlorine dioxide
chlorine
chlorinated organic
substances
Toxic
Dioxins
chlorinated phenols
non-chlorinated organic
substances
nutrients
phosphate
nitrate
metals
manganese
high
chemical oxygen demand (COD)
Forest
Kampar peninsula
Malaysia
Asia Pulp & Paper (APP)
Its ramin habitat, is also identified as critical habitat for the survival of Sumatran tigers
Forest
Sumatra Rain Forest
Malaysia
Sewage
Works
Medium
Water Quality
Reasonable standard for aquatic life
Not drinkable by humans without significant pre-treatment
Overflow
due to storm surges
Illegal
Discharge
Sungai Kampar
River
Rain Forest
Deforestation
Mono-fast
growing trees
reforestation
Loss
of biodiversity
Wildlife Displacement
Wildlife Displacement
Critical Habitat
Critical
Native Species
Extinction
Sumatra
Tiger
high total suspended solids
in particular
Reasonable standard for aquatic life
Not drinkable by humans without significant pre-treatment
The growth of cotton is divided into two segments i.e. organic and genetically modified.[1] Cotton crop provides livelihood to millions of people but its production is becoming expensive because of high water consumption, use of expensive pesticides, insecticides and fertiliser. Genetically Modified products aim to increase disease resistance and reduce the water required. The organic sector was worth $583 million. Genetically Modified cotton, in 2007, occupied 43% of cotton growing areas.
This product is used for greasing of industrial sewing and knitting machines, spinning mills and for
greasing of silk, cotton threads to be knitted.
Destillate
of petroleum
Gray
Fabric
Oil
Refinery
Stanlow Refinery
Runcorn
Oil
Well
Majnoon Oil Well
Basra, Iraq
Break or Open-end spinning
Machine
Dezising
Scouring
The cloth is steeped in a dilute acid and then rinsed, or enzymes may be used to prevent shrinking during washing
Chemical washing process carried out on cotton fabric to remove natural wax and non-fibrous impurities (e.g. the remains of seed fragments) from the fibres and any added soiling or dirt
Kier
iron vessels
Sodium
hydroxide
Alkali
saponification
produced industrially by the hydrolysis of triglycerides,
with the removal of glycerol
NaOH
caustic soda
Salt
Salt Mine
Shenhai Well
Zigong
Sichuan province
Bleaching
Bleaching improves whiteness by removing natural coloration and remaining trace impurities from the cotton
sodium hypochlorite
Hooker process (named after Hooker Chemicals, now Occidental Petroleum), is the only large scale industrial method of sodium hypochlorite production.
Oxidising Agent
Tianjin Yufeng Chemical Co.,Ltd.
Tianjin Province China
Chlorine
sodium hydroxide
Tianjin Yufeng Chemical Co.,Ltd.
Tianjin Province China
caustic soda
Salt
Brine
Elemental chlorine is commercially produced from brine by electrolysis.
Salt
Water
Singeing
Singeing is designed to burn off the surface fibres from the fabric to produce smoothness. The fabric passes over brushes to raise the fibres, then passes over a plate heated by gas flames.
Mercerising
The fabric is treated with caustic soda solution to cause swelling of the fibres. This results in improved lustre, strength and dye affinity. Cotton is mercerized under tension, and all alkali must be washed out before the tension is released or shrinkage will take place.
Raising
During raising, the fabric surface is treated with sharp teeth to lift the surface fibres, thereby imparting hairiness, softness and warmth, as in flannelette
Calendering
Fabric is passed between heated rollers to generate smooth, polished or embossed effects depending on roller surface properties and relative speeds.
Shrinking
Mechanically, the fabric is forced to shrink width and/or lengthwise, creates a fabric in which any residual tendency to shrink after subsequent laundering is minimal.
Chemical
Treatment
Non-Chemical
Treatment
Caustic
Soda
Gas
Xi River
tributary of
Pearl River
Mordant
Azo Dye
Methyl
orange
Primary
aromatic amines
nitrous acid
+
=
diazonium salt
undergo coupling reaction to form azo compound
mineral oil
residues
The World Health Organization classifies untreated or mildly treated mineral oils as Group 1 carcinogens to humans.
The intake of untreated water containing mineral oils can impede the absorption of fat soluble vitamins A, D, E, K and essential fatty acids.
asthma
Salt Mine
Shenhai Well
Zigong
Sichuan province
salt
Waste Water
treated
water
untreated
water
sewage
works
discharged
to the river
treated
water
untreated
water
sewage
works
discharged
to the river
Cancer
Nutritional deficiency
Reasonable standard for aquatic life
Not drinkable by humans without significant pre-treatment at the Drink Water Treatment Plant
Free Fatty
Acids
ingestion can cause
esophageal stricture.
Water
chemical burns
permanent injuries
scarring
blindness
untreated
water
The major safety concern with sodium hydroxide is its potentially corrosive effects on living tissue in particular, skin, flesh, and the cornea of the eye
Reasonable standard for aquatic life
Not drinkable by humans without significant pre-treatment by the Water Purification Plant
Personal protective equipment
Sodium hydroxide is commercially manufactured using a membrane cell chlor-alkali process. It is one of the highest volume industrial chemicals with world wide annual production of approximately 40 million tons. It is supplied in various forms such as flakes, pellets, microbeads, coarse powder or a solution
irritates the respiratory system
toxic
coughing
vomiting
eyes irritation
water treatment works
drinking
water works
Salt Mine
Shenhai Well
Zigong
Sichuan province
pesticides
residues
low levels
no concern
discharged
to the river
As azo-compounds are highly coloured, they are widely used in dyeing industries
Slight
hazardous
Irritant
skin
eye
indigestion
http://www.sciencelab.com/
msds.php?msdsId=9926081
Mutagenic
bacteria
and/or yeast
airborne concentrations of vapors
Acid
Methyl orange in an acid it is reddish and in alkali it is yellow.
ph 3.1
Consumer goods which contain listed aromatic amines originating from azo dyes were prohibited from manufacture and sale in European Union countries in September 2003
Greenpeace has scientific reports that say that
100% cotton t-shirts contain Amines
http://www.greenpeace.org/eastasia/publications/reports/toxics/2014/little-story-monsters-closet/
Other scientific reports say that the quantities of these Amines are not a concern for human health
http://www.senseaboutscience.org/news.php/372/toxic-chemicals-in-kids-clothes
Aluminium
Sulphate
Shanghai Zhongxin Yuxiang Chemical Co., Ltd.
Shangai, China
HUPC Chemical Co., Ltd.
Hangzhou City -Zhejiang Province - China
Shanghai Smart Chemicals Co., Ltd. in Shanghai, China
aluminium
hydroxide
sulfuric acid
Wuhan Guotai Hongfa Commodity Co., Ltd.
Wuhan City, Hubei Province
China
Al2(SO4)3
Al(OH)3
H2SO4
bauxite
sodium hydroxide
NaOH
270°C
bauxite
mine
Sulawesi, Indonesia

Ore
red mud
ferruginous residue
open pit mine
in Tropical Rainforest
All the earth covering the minerals is removed by heavy machinery.
habitat
destruction
soil erosion
loss of
biodiversity
water pollution
great biodiversity
Open cast mining involves the removal of the top layer of soil in order to get at the ores underneath. The resultant soil erosion means that it may be very difficult for vegetation, whether natural or crops, to re-establish itself. This is especially the case if the removed soil is not replaced soon after the mining operation is finished. Some mining companies have a better record of minimising soil erosion than others.
flooding
wastewater being swept
into the drinking supply
water table
if mining may is deep enough
http://www.alcoa.com/alumina/en/info_page/bauxite_residue.asp
Environmental law in China is not as rigorous as in Europe today so dye works discharge the water they used mixed with, bleach, mordants, dyes and other chemicals in the finished treatment process to the water. Communal pipes often makes it impossible to know which factories are responsible for the discharge.

http://www.worldissues360.com/index.php/effect-of-bauxite-mining-on-the-environment-11861/
http://www.sdc.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2013/08/Azo-dye-synthesis-for-schools.pdf
Aluminia
Refinery
Pingguo Alumina
run by Chinalco
Guangxi, China
special facilities
for disposal
Construction Materials:
bricks or fillings
Aniline
Benzene
Crude Oil
Offshore Oil Field
Seria, Brunei
Seria Oil Refinery
Brunei
toxic
flamable
increases
the risk of cancer
notorious cause
of bone marrow failure
aplastic anemia
acute leukemia
potentially fatal cancer of the blood-forming organs, in susceptible individuals
fertility impacts
fetal development
accidents
In 2005, the water supply to the city of Harbin in China with a population of almost nine million people, was cut off because of a major benzene exposure. Benzene leaked into the Songhua River, which supplies drinking water to the city, after an explosion at a China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) factory in the city of Jilin on 13 November.
high concentrations
0.005 mg/L benzene maximum
in drinking water (US)
Benzene
workplace
max 1 ppm benzene air
8h/day 40h/week
max 5 ppm for 15 minutes
Benzene
sampling controls
Dongying City Longxing
Chemical Co., Ltd.
Shandong Province
China
Aniline is mainly produced in industry in two steps from benzene. First, benzene is nitrated using a concentrated mixture of nitric acid and sulfuric acid at 50 to 60 °C, which gives nitrobenzene. In the second step, the nitrobenzene is hydrogenated, typically at 200–300 °C in presence of various metal catalysts
Wash
Around 1.6 billion cubic metres of dye containing waster is produced in China every year.
Waste Water
drink
water
works
untreated
water
sewage
works
discharged
to the river
toxic
increases
the risk of cancer
notorious cause
of bone marrow failure
aplastic anemia
acute leukemia
potentially fatal cancer of the blood-forming organs, in susceptible individuals
fertility impacts
fetal development
Noise
human presence
wildlife displacement
wildlife competition
in reduced habitat
Large amounts of water
are needed to clean the ore
from dirt
indigenas people
displacement
heavy metals
caustic soda
Salt
Salt Mine
Shenhai Well
Zigong
Sichuan province
storage lagoon
Sulfur
Oxygen
Water
World production in 2004 was about 180 million tonnes and 35% is produced in Asia.
Ammonium sulfate, an important nitrogen fertilizer, is most commonly produced as a byproduct from coking plants supplying the iron and steel making plants. Reacting the ammonia produced in the thermal decomposition of coal with waste sulfuric acid allows the ammonia to be crystallized out as a salt (often brown because of iron contamination) and sold into the agro-chemicals industry.
Ineos Americas Llc
League City Texas
Du Pont
La Porte Texas
The major use for sulfuric acid is in the "wet method" for the production of phosphoric acid, used for manufacture of phosphate fertilizers. In this method, phosphate rock is used, and more than 100 million tonnes are processed annually.
Soil Association Peak Phosphorus http://www.soilassociation.org/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=eeGPQJORrkw%3D
Nitrogen Fertiliser
immediately upon contact.
ingestion can cause
esophageal stricture.
it can cause
sever burns
permanent injuries
scarring
blindness
high concentrations
stored
glass containers
acid
aerosols
irritation of the eyes,
respiratory tract and mucous membranes
erosion of the teeth at chronic lower concentrations
permissible exposure limit (PEL) for sulfuric acid is fixed at 1 mg/m3
S
Natural Gas
Petroleum
sulfur-containing contaminants byproduct
Seria Oil Refinery
Sungai Bera
Brunei
The world production of sulfur in 2011 amounted to 69 million tonnes (Mt)
The burning of coal and/or petroleum by industry and power plants generates sulfur dioxide (SO2), which reacts with atmospheric water and oxygen to produce sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and sulfurous acid (H2SO3). These acids are components of acid rain, which lower the pH of soil and freshwater bodies, sometimes resulting in substantial damage to the environment and chemical weathering of statues and structures. Fuel standards increasingly require that fuel producers extract sulfur from fossil fuels to prevent acid rain formation. This extracted and refined sulfur represents a large portion of sulfur production. In coal-fired power plants, flue gases are sometimes purified. More modern power plants that use synthesis gas extract the sulfur before they burn the gas.
Sulphur Dioxide
acid rain
damage to the
environment
HOW?
Waste
Water
Arylamines
Bladder Cancer
An environmental risk for bladder cancer is presented by a class of organic chemicals called arylamines. People who work in the leather, rubber, printing, and textiles industries or with

http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/68665/bladder-cancer#ref672455 quantities of paint are often exposed to these chemicals and should exercise caution in their use.
Wash
untreated
water
sewage
works
Reasonable standard for aquatic life
Not drinkable by humans without significant pre-treatment at the Drink Water Treatment Plant
drinking
water works
Levels standard for human Health

?
?
Detergent & Surfactant
Nanylphenol Ethoxylates
NPE
Phenol
Nonenes
Alkylphenols
Nanylphenol Ethoxylates
endocrine disruptor
can cause in mammals
Alkene
Natural
Gas
cancerous tumors
learning
disabilities
severe attention
deficit disorder
Phosphate
fertiliser
acid
Phosphate rock
Quary
Hunting Bone Valley
Florida
Nitrogen
Nitrogen from the air (4/5 air is nitrogen) is 'fixed' to make ammonia which uses a lot of energy in the (Haber Bosch) process. The ammonia makes other fertilisers
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haber_process
International Nitrogen Initiative http://www.initrogen.org/
Air
Ammonia
Hydrogen
N2
NH3
H2
electricity
The Haber process is estimated to be responsible for sustaining one-third of the Earth's population
The synthesis of the ammonia uses an iron catalyst and requires high temperatures (400–600°C) and high pressures (20–40MPa). As a result, it consumes more than 1% of the energy generated in the world each year.
The hydrogen comes from methane in natural gas accounting for 3-5% of all gas used
Natural Gas
Finite Resource
Methane
Benzidine
In a Chinese study, where 784 workers were exposed to benzidine, a 35-fold increased of bladder cancer risk was observed in the early
http://www.ehjournal.net/content/11/S1/S11
Nonyphenol
Ethoxylates
(NPE)
Detergent
& Suractant
Nonyphenol
Alkylphenols
Ethoxylates
Phenols
Nonenes
acid-catalyzed alkylation of phenol
endocrin disruptor
cancerous tumors
birth defects
learning disabilities
feminizing of males
reproductive and infertility
problems in wildlife
Nonylphenol and nonyphenol ethoxylates have been restricted in the European Union as a hazard to human and environmental safety.
Greenpeace has scientific reports that say that
100% cotton t-shirts contain NPE's
http://www.greenpeace.org/eastasia/publications/reports/toxics/2014/little-story-monsters-closet/
Other scientific reports say that the quantities of these Amines are not a concern for human health
http://www.senseaboutscience.org/news.php/372/toxic-chemicals-in-kids-clothes
In 2006 382,500 metric tons of Alcohol Ethoxysulfates (AES ) were consumed in North America
ethylene
oxide
alcohol
120–180 °C
catalyst
carcinogen
Several laboratory methods for the synthesis of phenols.
They also occur naturally from plants and organisms
Hock Process
Hock Process
benzene
propene
cumene
oxygen
Nonyphenol
Ethoxylates
(NPE)
Xi River
tributary of
Pearl River
untreated
water
sewage
works
discharged
to the Xi river
reproductive and infertility problems in wildlife. e.g: feminizing of males
bio-accumulative
bio-accumulative
Xi River
tributary of
Pearl River
drink
water
works
By the year 2000, the alumina industry had produced circa 2 billion tons (Bt) of bauxite residue and is estimated to reach the 4 Bt mark at its current production rate by 2015
ph 12.8
35 mg/kg
615 mg/kg
30 mg/kg
3 mg/kg
http://www.iuss.org/19th%20WCSS/Symposium/pdf/0338.pdf
Zinc
sewage
works
discharged
to the river
Modern oil refineries produce far less pollution than older refineries, in part because today air is used to cool the oil in the refining process instead of water.
Regulations now o not allow water present in the oil extracted from the ground to be released to rivers without pre-treatment.
Coal mines today have their own water treatment plants to treat the drainage water and run-off from spoil heaps before it is released to the environment
Oil wells today have their own water treatment plants to treat the water before its released to the environment
Coal often contains iron pyrite which generates sulphuric acid when it is exposed to air and water during extraction of the coal. This acid contaminates the water draining the mine plus the run-off from spoil heaps that also also iron pyrite. this water acidifies the surrounding rivers and also releases aluminium from the soil. The acid water and aluminium are both harmful to invertebrates and fish
pH 4.0 or less
machines
River
illness
This t-shirt life cycle has assumed that its cotton is not organically grown, it's dyed with synthetic red, it has been washed 52 times with ordinary laundary powder and it has been disposed of in the bin
If you do differently visit www.ccalclite.com
to see your carbon footprint!
Chorine and alkaline water is very soluble in water and is toxic to aquatic life
sodium hypochlorite
Personal protective equipment is needed
Nanylphenol Ethoxylates
Nanylphenol Ethoxylates
CF Industries Nitrogen Complex
Donaldsville Louisiana, U.E
chemical company BASFA
Nanjing, China
Oil
RAW
MATERIALS

MANUFACTURE
DISTRIBUTION
SHOP

USE
END LIFE
MY
T-SHIRT
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