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RBT Modules 17 & 18

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Michael Cameron

on 24 August 2015

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Transcript of RBT Modules 17 & 18

Library of
Assessment
Tools and
Intervention
Strategies

The Bright
Light on
Contingency
Independent
Stimuli

Module Goals
Questions
Answers
Antecedent-Based Interventions
Team Collaboration
Time to Meet Dr. Jack Michael
Registered Behavior Technician
Modules 17 & 18

Contingency Dependent Stimuli
Instructor:
Dr. Michael Cameron

Registered Behavior Technician Modules:
D-02 and D-03 (Behavior Reduction)

Title:
Describe Common Functions of Behavior (D-02) and Implement Interventions Based on Modifications of Antecedents such as Motivating/Establishing Operations and Discriminative Stimuli (D-03)

Duration:
75 Minutes

Assessment:
Competency based quiz (5 questions)

Demonstration Recommendations:
At the conclusion of this module,
Ask
your BCBA supervisor to provide examples of how they have antecedent-based interventions,
Practice
identifying potential antecedent-based interventions for a person, and
Demonstrate
you ability to implement an antecedent-based intervention strategy.


Provide a refresher on the primary
functions of behavior
Discuss the development of interventions
for behavior change
To define and discuss antecedent control
and antecedent interventions
Define and describe contingency dependent
stimuli (e.g., discriminative stimuli or SD).


Define and describe contingency
independent stimuli (e.g., establishing
operations)

Review

Functions of behavior (
S
ensory,
E
scape,
A
ttention,
T
angible). These are the maintaining
consequences or the causes of behavior. Remember,
what we call a problem behavior is a solution to a
problem for the person engaging. Aberrant behavior
can be a form of language and a way of communicating

Information from preference assessment and reinforcer assessment
Functional Behavior Assessment and the
A
ntecedent
B
ehavior
C
onsequence analysis, the scatter plot analysis,
and the setting events checklist

Skills assessment and prioritization of
goals

Interdisciplinary team, rapport, mutual respect, and
shared vision
Interventions
What are
antecedents?

Events
People
Things
Time of day
The physical environment
The presence of something
The absence of something
Being scolded
Being teased

Being told to complete an assignment
Contingency
Dependent Stimuli
The antecedent event is
dependent on the consequences
of behavior for developing evocative
and abative effects
Explains stimulus control functions
referred to as antecedent control
(the stimulus signals availability of
a consequence - it changes your chance of getting something )
Some antecedents
may set the stage or
"trigger" a
challenging behavior (something we
do not want), while
other antecedents set the stage or "trigger" appropriate
behavior (something we definitely want)
Once antecedent events that trigger behavior
are identified (via the ABA analysis and scatter
plot) we can begin to design our interventions

Options
Dr. Ted Carr's
tripartite model
(avoid, mitigate,
cope)
Case Study and Anchor
Gather information

Analyze information

Synthesize information

Background
:
A middle school student (Anthony) whose behavioral presentation worsens (a loud voice, use of expletives) in the school cafeteria (as determined by a scatter plot analysis). Greg has a diagnosis of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)
Scenario:
The onset of his challenging behavior (loud voice and use of expletives) is correlated (as determined by an ABC analysis) with the presence of a specific female peer (Gracie). Anthony would like to be social with Gracie (seeking attention according to his FBA), but his attempts have been cumbersome and rebuffed by Gracie (information from the FBA process) as a result of telling "Knock Knock" jokes. Based on a Social Skills Assessment, social skill deficits were identified
Strategy:

Eliminate the Antecedent: A Bridge Plan. Program elements included (Contingency Dependent Stimuli - Antecedent Control)

Data
:
Collected on Functionally Equivalent Replacement Behavior (intraverbals or conversational exchanges) and on the target behaviors (e.g., loud voice and
use of expletives)
You will broaden your practice,
increase the number of ideas you can
generate, and build your repertoire of
clinical skills and knowledge of strategies
Change in lunch schedule (temporary)
Preference assessment for Gracie (with consent). Interest in a technique for painting called Pointillism
Use of Kidspiration to teach Anthony about
Pointillism and other painting techniques
The use of Behavior Rehearsals
Reliance on naturally occurring consequences
Case Study and Anchor
Background:

Anika was a 2nd grade student that disliked math (math word problems)

Scenario:
Anika would routinely break her pencils, request the bathroom, and tear her math worksheets (scatter plot information). She appeared to be motivated by her ability to avoid or escape demands (FBA information). Anika was extremely interested in cats and kittens and the Bad Kitty series of books (preference assessment information)
Strategy:

Modify the Content to Prevent Problem Behavior (Contingency Dependent Stimuli - Antecedent Control)
We incorporated Anika's interest (Bad Kitty characters and story themes such as wrecking havoc when the Kitty is in a bad mood) into the math word problems. Anika's dad prepared the math word problems based on the teacher's guidance
Data:

We collected permanent product data (completed
work sheets), percentage correct data (math problems),
and data on broken pencils, requests for bathroom breaks
during math class, and the number of worksheets torn
each day
C
ase Study and Anchor


Background
:

Darius was a war veteran that suffered a mild stroke in his late 80s.
Scenario
:
Subsequent to the stroke, Darius was required to use a walker; however, he refused, and pointed out that it was just too difficult to
walk the distance his Occupational Therapist was requesting (bed to bathroom).
What is the function?

Also, his wife and daughter indicated that Darius simply loved military marching songs. He also loved writing cards to his
great grandchildren.
What assessment was used to acquire that information?


Strategies:

Change Task Difficulty and Make the Task more Meaningful
(Contingency Dependent Stimuli - Antecedent Control)
Use of recorded military marching songs and
Darius was asked if he could march to his
bureau (6 feet away from bed)
His daughter purchased silly children's cards and envelopes and stamps and put them in the bureau
Data
:
What data collection method would be
appropriate?
Antecedent event is
not
dependent on the
consequneces of behavior
for developing evocative
and abative effects
The antecedent itself
effects behavior - consequence
relations
Motivating Operations
are contingency
independent. The Motivating Operation
changes how much you want something
(unconditioned MO, conditioned
MO)
Researcher, professor, and
author in the field of the
experimental analysis of behavior
Motivating
Operations

The Motivating
Operation refers to
an event or stimulus
condition that alters:
(a) the value of consequences
that act as types of
reinforcement or punishment (the MO has
a value-altering effect), and
(b) the probability of behaviors
that have been previously associated
with such consequences (the MO has
a behavior-altering effect)
Case Studies

Case Study and Anchor
Background:

Steven was a sixteen year-old boy with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. He was also a fire setter and was admitted to a 45 day hospital-based diagnostic program (he was a day patient).
Scenario
:
Steven was transported to the hospital on a bus each morning. However, upon arrival, he refused to exist the bus and would become violent. Steven put himself and others at risk for serious injury. On a daily
basis, Steven required three staff members to support him (based on the FBA results, Steven appeared to be reinforced by the attention). Steven was very interested in high performance cars (e.g., Maserati) and was extremely knowledgeable about all aspects of performance and liked to demonstrate his knowledge. This was determined as a result of a preference assessment.


Strategy:

High Probability Low Probability (High p Low p) Procedure (Contingency
Independent Stimuli - antecedent intervention) . That is, the presentation of a series of highly desirable demands (high-p commands) followed by reinforcement for compliance. This is followed by a less desirable command (low-p command) followed by reinforcement for compliance.
Data
:
Latency measure and frequency of aggression. Steven also used a self recording and self management system
Case Study and Anchor
Background
:
Asher was a 5th grader who was gifted and
had a diagnosis of Attention Deficit
Hyperactivity Disorder. During the first hour of class
(determined by a scatter plot analysis) he frequently disrupted the class with loud announcements about esoteric information. His proclamations were ultimately stigmatizing. He appeared to be motivated by large group attention.


Scenario
:
Asher attended a Science, Technology, Engineering,
and Mathematics (STEM) Magnet School. Asher was facinated
with 18th century England and the customs of the people at the time. His classroom disruptions occurred, on average, 3 times within the first hour of class. However, he was being bullied by other students as a result of his behavior

Strategy
:
We used a noncontingent reinforcement program (NCR) that involved:
Data
:
Classroom disruptions

Steven was greeted on the bus (where he sat) with
a Car and Driver magazine and a series of
questions about a particular car from a genuinely
naive staff member. He happily answered the questions (high-p command). The car discussed changed daily and was determined via preference assessment on the prior day
The staff person ultimately asked whether they could "walk and talk" (low-p command). The intervention reduced the value of the reinforcement that followed non-compliance and aggression
What are the 4 basic functions of behavior?

S
ensory,
E
scape,
A
ttention,
T
angible

Who should be involved in the development
of interventions?
The team consisting of stakeholders (including the family)
Is an SD a Contingency Dependent Stimulus
of Contingency Independent?
Contingency Dependent
Does a Motivating Operation signal the
availability of something?
No, a MO changes the value of reinforcers
or punishers
Is a Motivating Operation A Contingency
Dependent of Independent Stimulus?
Contingency Independent
Appointing him as the Town Crier. He went from one
classroom to another during the first hour of each morning and made announcements
We used a Fixed Time Schedule
Three chapters on motivation

Chapter 9:
Deprivation and
Satiation

Chapter 10:
Emotion
Chapter 11:
Aversion,
Avoidance, and Anxiety
Motivation is not
the same as discriminative
stimuli
Discriminative Stimulus or SD
Full transcript