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Brodie Gilmour

on 19 April 2010

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Transcript of Particles

Particles Classification Hadrons Baryons Mesons Protons Neutrons Leptons Electron Electron Neutrino Muon Muon Neutrino Tau Tau Neutrino Hadrons Leptons
All Hadrons feel the Strong Interaction The Strong Interaction holds the protons and neutrons together in a nucleus Protons and Neutrons are classified as Baryons There are more Baryons that do not occur in normal matter All Baryons decay into a Proton because they are the only stable one Baryons The Baryon Number is the number of Baryons present In any Particle reaction, the Baryon Number always remains the same Leptons are fundamental particles that do no feel the Strong Interaction They can only interact with other particles through the Weak Interaction The Electron is a stable Lepton, so the Muon and the Tau decay into one There are also Neutrino 'forms' of each of the Leptons Neutrinos have (almost) zero mass and zero electric charge They rarely interact with normal matter, and can pass right through the Earth The Lepton number is similar to the Baryon Number, in that it dictates
the amount of leptons. Each type of Lepton (electron, electron neutrino) have a seperate Number to the other two. All Hadrons are made up of Quarks Structure of an Atom Thompson Model - The Plum Pudding Model Positively charged sphere with
electrons scattered inside Rutherford, Geiger and Marsden disproved the Thompson Model They fired alpha particles at gold foil and observed the scattering Expected result Actual result Some alpha particles where scattered at angles greater than 90 degrees
and sometimes near 180 degrees This lead to several conclusions
Since most of the particles travelled straight through the foil, then an atom must be mostly empty space
Since some were deflected back at significant angles, the core must be small but massive. This was named the 'nucleus'
Since the particles were repelled, then the nucleus must be positive
Because the overall atom is neutral the electrons must be on the outside of the atom. Formula for the Closest Approach

E_initial=E_elec=(Q_nucleus Q_particle)/(4πe_0 r)
Antiparticles The initial kinetic energy equals the electrical potential energy Charge on the nucleus times the charge on the paricle over 4 pi times the permittivity of free space time the
closest distance Every particle has an opposite that has the opposite charge and 'Number' but the same mass Matter and antimatter can be created from energy using E=mc^2 When this is done they are created in equal measure Pair Production If two protons are fired at each other at high speeds, then when they collide
there is enough energy to produce a proton and antiproton Pair production can be proformed by a single gamma ray photon if it has
enough energy, in accordance with E=mc^2 Usually an Electron-Positron pair is produce because of their low mass Annihilation The opposite of production When a particle meets its antiparticle the total mass is converted into energy
in the form of two gamma ray photons
Full transcript