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Geological Time Scale

Informative project for ESS regarding the Geoligical Time Scale, and the beginning of Earth itself.
by

Linda marshall

on 22 May 2016

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Transcript of Geological Time Scale

Cimate is warm with a continuation of a greenhouse effect

Firsts: Jawed Bony Fish, land plants (mosses, ferns, lichens), coral reefs

Giant spiders, scorpions, centipedes & insects abound
4600 Mya
4.6 Bya
1.6 Mya to Present Day
2500 Mya
Precambrian: Earth forms
Geologic Time Scale
Much of Earth is covered with "oceans of liquid rock." Volcanoes are erupting everywhere and lava, rocks, and asteroids rain down on the Earth. It's extremely hot and deadly to all potential life.
Climate: hot and dry conditions.

Atmosphere::high levels of CO2, around 10 times higher
than today.

After the Permian extinction of marine life, less diversity exists in the oceans. Marine reptiles evolve.

Animal Life: Amphibians and reptiles dominated.

First dinosaurs, first true, first pterosaurs, first turtles & crocodiles

Plant Life: Seed ferns, conifers and palm-like forests

Plate tectonics: Pangaea was beginning to break apart.
The atmosphere is much hotter than present day. It is thick with of dust, carbon dioxide and water vapor, and a little nitrogen and sulfur compounds.
Early Proterozoic (Paleoproterozoic):

Climate: Warmer than today

Atmosphere: Most carbon dioxide, but increasing oxygen throughout the period

Dominant Animals: N/A

Dominant Plants: N/A

Major Extinctions: Most anaerboic bacteria died out due to the increase in oxygen.

Rocktypes/formations: Sedimentary

Neccesary lower life: Cynobacteria evolved and started producing oxygen

Index Fossils: N/A

Plate tectonics: Super continent Columbia formed

Extra: Ancestors of all eukaryotes appeared during this time
450 days per year and 20 hours days in this period
The Earth is a ball of fire, and it thought that the moon is formed during this period. Earth day is 14.4 hours long.
Climate is warm as Pangaea breaks apart, sea levels rise

CO2 levels are 5 times higher than today.

Dinosaurs dominate, with giant sauropods like diplodocus. Early mammals are developing
First dinosaur-like bird (Archeopteryx)

Evergreen, ferns & palm forests
Middle Proterozoic (Mesoproterozoic)

Climate: Warmer than today

Atmosphere: start of the oxygenation of the atmosphere, 10% oxygen in the atmosphere by the end

Animals dominant: N/A

Plants dominant: N/A

Major extinctions: None

Rock types/formations: Banded iron formations

Necessary lower life: High point of stromatolites, start of multi cellar organisms

Index fossils: N/A

Plate tectonics: Formation of Rodinia, breakup of Colombia

Extra: Evolution of sexual reproduction
Time of some of the most famous dinosaurs (Tyrannosaurus rex, Triceratops, Giganotosaurus)

First flowering plants evolve, first true birds, first snakes

Mass Extinction at the end of the period. Thought to be caused by an asteroid. Dinosaurs and many other species go extinct.

Plate tectonics: Pangea still drifting apart.
"Age of the Mammals" (after a brief domination by giant birds.

Modern groups of mammals like horses, elephants, bears, rodents, primates, whales & dolphins evolve. Early ancestors of humans.


Plant life: Similar to today´s plant life. Dense forests in the beginning, open woodlands and grasslands in the end.

Continents move into their present positions. They start to look like today´s Earth.
Ice age occurs early in the Quaternary, glaciers cover North America

Giant mammals florish in the begining of the period and go extinct as the Ice Age ends, wooly mammoth, sabre tooth cat, dire wolf

Modern humans evolve about 100,000 years ago.

Earth is cooling. Water covers the Earth as land begins to surface.
The atmosphere is thick with nitrogen gas, there is less CO2.
Life consists of single-celled organisms. (Bacteria/Algae), Stromatolites begin to form.
Precambrian: Archean Eon
Middle Era
Climate:


Atmosphere:


Animal Life:

Plant Life:
Nickname:
Extinctions:
Rock Types/Formations:

Lower Life Key Role:

INDEX Fossils:

Plate Tectonic:

Other:
Climate:


Atmosphere:

Animal Life:

Plant Life:
Nickname:
Extinctions:
Rock Types/Formations:

Lower Life Key Role:

INDEX Fossils:

Plate Tectonic:

Other:
3000 Mya
3400 Mya
3800 Mya
1600 Mya
1000 Mya
1 bya
544 Mya
Ancient or Primitive Era
Ancient or Primitive Era
Towards the end of the era, sponges, worms and jellyfish evolve.

Climate: Warmer than today

Oxygen levels in the atmosphere increase

Major extinctions: 70% of species go extinct in the first major extinction of Earth's history. During this time snowball Earth occurs, days are18 hours long.
Warm with periodic glaciation. Atmosphere is similar to today, no ozone layer

Animals dominant: Invertebrates, Trilobites, worms, snails, shellfish

Plants only in the ocean (algae)

Period begins with the Cambrian explosion when many forms of marine invertebrates evolve
Climate: Warm at the beginning of the period but then cooled to today levels

Atmosphere: Similar to today start of a greenhouse effect

Dominant Life: marine invertebrates dominate the oceans, including trilobites

First jawless fish and sharks

Plate tectonics: Gondwana formed, Appalachian Mountains formed
Continues cooling from hadean eon. Water covers the Earth as Land continues to surface.
Has 75% Nitrogen Gas, and 25% CO2.
Mostly single-celled organisms. (Bacteria/Algae), and stromatolites begin to form.
There were no tectonic plates. However the earth was constantly moving and changing.
Granitoid, tonalite, greenstone, limestone, and altered basaltic rock. Land from hardened lava begins to show.
Remains of different types of bacteria/algae.
Algae continue to form an extensive slimy carpet in shallow coastal waters.
Life dominated by the fish, sharks: Age of the Fish

First amphibians evolve from fish, first seed bearing plants, first trees (conifers)

Plants now have roots and leaves

Climate is warm
Continues cooling from hadean eon. Water covers the Earth as Land continues to surface.
Mostly full of Nitrogen gas, there is less CO2.
Mostly single-celled organisms. (Bacteria/Algae), and stromatolites.
There were no techtonic plates. However the earth was constantly moving and changing.
Granitoid, tonalite, greenstone, limestone, and altered basaltic rock. Land from hardened lava continues to show.
Remains of different types of bacteria/algae.
Algae continue to form an extensive slimy carpet in shallow coastal waters. And a thin crust and O2 becomes evident.
N/A
N/A
N/A
N/A
Precambrian: First Life Evolves 3.8 bya
Precambrian: Archean Eon
Late Era
Dominant Animals: Amphibians, flying insects, fish and sharks

First true reptiles evolve from amphibians

Dominant Plants: Seed bearing and bark bearing trees

Swamps cover much of North America & Europe, coal deposits form

Plate tectonics: Pangaea is starting to form
505 Mya
438 Mya
408 Mya
360 Mya
286 Mya
245 Mya
208 Mya
144 Mya
65 Mya
This era contains the oldest record of Earth's magnetic field.
Sun brightens to 80% of current level,
Life dominated by repitles, amphibians struggle as the climate warms.

End of the Permian MASS extinction: Biggest extinction in the Paleozoic and possibly the history of the earth. 90-95% of marine species went extinct, 70% of land species went extinct. Thought to be caused by volcanic activity

Plate tectonics: Pangaea fully formed by now and its interior was a mass desert

Protomammals evolve, first shot at mammals that will go extinct.
Formation of the Earth and solar system
End of Precambrian
Paleozoic Era 544mya -245 mya
Cambrian Period 544mya-505 mya
Ordovician 505 mya - 438 may
Earth day is 15 hours long
Silurian 438 mya - 408 mya
Devonian 408 mya - 360 mya
Carboniferous 360 - 286 mya
Permian 286 - 245 mya
Triassic Period 245 - 208 mya
Jurassic 208 - 144 mya
Cretaceous 144 - 65 mya
Life at the end of the Precambrian
Early algae and bacteria
Mesozoic Era 245 - 65 mya
"Age of the Dinosaurs"
Cenozoic Era 65 mya - present
Tertiary 65 - 1.6 mya
Quaternary 1.6 mya - present
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