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Transcript of College Student
Assistant Vice President for Student Affairs
Sara Klein, Ph.D.
Marcia's Theory of
a time of upheaval where old values or choices are being re-examined
outcome of a crisis is that a commitment is made to a certain role or value
the extent to which one has made certain choices
how much of a commitment is made to those choices
Marcia's 4 Identity Statuses
Student Development Responds to 4 Questions...
What interpersonal and intrapersonal changes occur while the student is in college?
What factors lead to this development?
What aspects of the college environment encourage or limit growth?
What developmental outcomes should we strive to achieve in college?
Knefelkamp, Widick & Parker (1978)
accept parental values without questioning
raised in homogenous environment
never challenge; follow the rules
can remain here comfortably as long as authoritative influence continues
refuse to or cannot commit
have not yet experienced identity crisis
go with the flow; don't think about consequences
conform to expectations of others
often lack cognitive complexity
currently in a crisis
exploring choices but not ready for commitment
weighing all options
questioning parental values
has gone through an identity crisis and has made a commitment to a sense of identity
rely on internal sources rather than external to construct identity
choose own life path
considered healthiest status
of Identity Development
9 positions on continuum of development.
Development happens in between positions.
Emphasizes need to understand students in motion and not imprison them in stages.
Point of view with which we look at the world
Perry's Theory of Intellectual
and Ethical Development
Dichotomous view of the world
Learning is information exchange
Resist independent thinking
Authorities have the right answer
A right answer exists for everything
Knowledge is just an opinion; all opinions are equally valid
All answers will eventually be known
Starting to use supporting evidence to their arguments
Teachers seen as guides or consultants
Peers seen as legitimate source of knowledge
Not willing to challenge own pre-conceived notions
Individuals improve their ability to think critically; knowledge can no longer be assimilated into the dualistic scheme
Not all opinions are equally valid
All knowledge is relative; based in values and experiences
Reasonable people can disagree
Can argue their perspective
Knowledge is constructed through experience and reflection
Evaluate quality of evidence to determine merit of alternative arguments
4. Commitment in Relativism
Makes choices based on personal values
Attempts to resolve conflicts while acknowledging that they may never be fully resolved
Gets comfortable with life's questions
"A time when one finds at last the elusive sense of identity one has searched for elsewhere."
Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development
How do students make decisions?
How do college students develop their identities?
How do students develop ethics and values?
In Europe, a woman was near death from a special kind of cancer. There was one drug that the doctors thought might save her. It was a form of radium that a druggist in the same town had recently discovered. The drug was expensive to make, but the druggist was charging ten times what the drug cost him to make. He paid $200 for the radium and charged $2,000 for a small dose of the drug. The sick woman's husband, Heinz, went to everyone he knew to borrow the money, but he could only get together about $ 1,000 which is half of what it cost. He told the druggist that his wife was dying and asked him to sell it cheaper or let him pay later. But the druggist said: "No, I discovered the drug and I'm going to make money from it." So Heinz got desperate and broke into the man's store to steal the drug-for his wife.
Should the husband have done that? Why or why not?
The Heinz Dilemma
Theory of Self Authorship
"the internal capacity to define one's beliefs, identity, and social relations"
Phase 1: Following Formulas
allowing others to define who you are
following plans laid out for you, but you created the plan
gaining approval from others
Phase 2: Crossroads
plans don't fit; establish new plans
dissatisfied with self and how they have been defined by others
don't want to be limited by needing approval
end marked by sense of direction and confidence
Phase 3: Becoming the Author of One's Life
ability to choose own beliefs and stand up for them
feel compelled to live out beliefs
Phase 4: Internal Foundation
solidified and comprehensive system of belief
accepting of ambiguity and open to change
trust own feelings and act on them rationally
make life decisions based on foundation
Sanford's Theory of
Support and Challenge
How can I encourage student growth and development?
How do students determine what kind of person they want to be?
Tips for Faculty
support students where they're at, but challenge them to grow
structure courses to support dualistic students at the start of the semester, and progressively add challenges that necessitate relativistic thinking
start with instructions focused on students having the same answer; move into less defined assignments requiring them to interpret and experiment
ask students that push dualistic thinkers towards multiplicity; have them reflect
individualize work to allow dualistic students to engage, while also challenging students in the later stages
have direction and magnitude
can interact with one another
can/do happen concurrently
Student development is...
"the ways that a student grows, progresses, or increases developmental capabilities as a result of enrollment in an institution of higher education."
Perry in Practice
support students where they're at, but push them forward
always ask questions helping dualistic thinkers to move towards multiplicity
allow for reflection
don't make too many decisions for the student
Kohlberg in practice
pose ill-structured questions and problems
create opportunities for and comfort with disequilibrium
exposure to higher order thinking
Level 1 response to the Heinz Dilemma...
"It's wrong to steal because I might get caught."
Level 2 response to the Heinz Dilemma...
"It's okay to steal because he means well by helping his dying wife."
Level 3 response to the Heinz Dilemma...
"It's NOT wrong to steal, because life is worth more than property."
challenge and support evaluation of knowledge
move from 'instructional' to 'learning' paradigm
create campus community that equally values curricular and co-curricular learning
Baxter Magolda in Practice
marcia in practice
challenge existing ideas; offer new ones
encourage students to articulate how they came to make decisions
assist in development of a plan and timeline for pursuing a career
help students narrow down their choices
listen often and well
(No Crisis, Commitment)
(No Crisis, No Commitment)
Crisis, No Commitment
How do students develop psychosocial identities?
Infancy and Childhood
families, social networks, historical events contribute to socialization
high vs low race salience
begin to develop a black self-concept
may confirm or redefine salience
reemergence of low vs high race salience and internalized racism
Stages of Nigrescence
encounter event which calls black identity into question
those with a healthy self-concept will achieve wisdom
Cross and Fhagen-Smith's
Black Identity Development
3 Patterns of Nigrescence
Pattern A: develop identity through formative socialization experiences
Pattern B: not socialized toward blackness; conversion experience
Pattern C: nigrescence recycling