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Development through the Lifespan

Chapter 3 Presentation
by

Allison Molitor

on 28 February 2014

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Transcript of Development through the Lifespan

8 stages of development
Development spans the entire lifetime
Order of crises is predetermined, but environment determines how each stage is played out
Must successfully complete one stage before you can move to the next
Conflicts arise between the individual and society
People are social creatures and are driven to form relationships
Stage theory
Includes four stages spanning from birth to adulthood
Four stages
Sensorimotor
Preoperational
Concrete operational
Formal operational
*Attachment: emotional tie with another person

Types of Attachment
Secure
Insecure
Anxious
Avoidant
Disorganized
Erikson's Stages of Psychosocial Development
Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development
Attachment Theory
Allison Molitor
Psychology 101
Developing through the Lifespan
Birth to 2 years

Experience the world through their senses and actions

During this stage children gain:

Object permanence: awareness that objects continue to exist when out of sight (8 months)

Stranger anxiety: fear of strangers (8 months)
Sensorimotor Stage
What is Developmental Psychology?
Study of how we change
Includes many types of development:
Physical
Cognitive
Socially
Covers the entire lifespan from conception to death
Nature Vs. Nurture
Are we shaped by our biology and genes?
Are we shaped by the environment we live in?
Do both interact to shape our development?
Important Terms
Maturation
Biological growth process leading to changes in behavior
Changes will happen in a predetermined order
Independent of experiences, but can be affected by extreme experiences
Examples:
Learning to walk
Learning to talk
Critical period
A period in the life cycle when exposure to a certain stimuli is needed for proper development
Learning to talk
Pruning process
Use it or lose it process
Process by which some neural pathways are strengthened by use and unused links are shut down
Stages of Development vs. Continuous Development
Stage theories
Each person will pass through certain stages
Movement between stages is quick and drastic (like a growth spurt)
Stability in a stage follows movement into it
Continuous development
Development happens as one continuous process
Movement happens more gradually and smoothly than in stage theories
Cognitive Development
Cognition
All mental activities
Includes thinking, remembering, knowing, recalling, communicating
Schemas
Ways in which we view the world
Are used to make sense of our experiences
New information fits into our schemas in two ways
*Assimilation: the new information is formed to fit with our
preexisting schemas
*Accommodation: the new information does not fit with our
current schema, so our schema changes to fit the new
information
Example: What is a baby?
Most people would easily be able to describe this due to their already formed schema around the word baby.
Preoperational stage
2 years to 6 or 7 years
Learn to represent things with words or images
Use intuitive rather than logical reasoning
During this children gain:
Pretend Play
Conservation: change in form does not mean a change in quantity
Egocentrism: difficulty taking another's view
Theory of mind: ideas about own and others' mental states
Concrete operational stage
6 or 7 years to 11 years
Think logically about concrete (actual experience) events
Performing math operations
Understand concrete analogies
During this children gain:
Math transformations
Inner speech
Formal operational stage
Age 12 and up
Abstract thinking and reasoning becomes possible
During this children gain:
If… then thinking
Ability to guess consequences
Understand hypothetical situations and reasoning
TRUST VS. MISTRUST
Infancy to 1 year
Form ideas about whether to trust or mistrust the world
Basic trust: a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy
Trust is formed by responsive caregivers early in life
Focused on the infant’s need for continuous care, attention, and protection
AUTONOMY VS. SHAME
1 to 2 years
Learn to do things on their own
Given many opportunities to try things
Have both successes and failures without punishment
Doubt comes from limited opportunities or retribution for failures
Main players are caregivers
Initiative vs. Guilt
3 to 5 years
Learn to start tasks on their own
Carry out own plans
Family members are important
Guilt comes from the difference between the competence needed to complete tasks and self-perception of their ability
Initiative prompts them to try new things
COMPETENCE VS. INFERIORITY
6 years to puberty
Learn to apply themselves to tasks and pursue activities that are favored by society
School and neighborhood members are important
Inferiority will develop if tasks are not given or the tasks given are too difficult for the child
IDENTITY VS. CONFUSION
Adolescence (teen to 20s)
Define sense of self
Begin to answer: Who am I?
May test out several different roles before forming an identity
Peer group and role models are important
INTIMACY VS. ISOLATION
20s to early 40s
Significant others become important
Work to form meaningful relationships
GENERATIVITY VS. STAGNATION
Middle adulthood (40s to 60s)
Find a sense of contributing to the world
Leaving behind a legacy
Finding sense of purpose to their life
If people fail to find these things they become stagnated
INTEGRITY VS. DESPAIR
Late adulthood (late 60s and up)
Includes reflection on the person’s life
Integrity comes from a feeling of satisfaction with the life they have led and personal worth
*Mary Ainsworth
*Strange situation experiment
*Infants are in a room with their mother and behaviors are observed
*The mother leaves the room and behaviors are observed
*The mother returns and behaviors are observed
Types of attachment
Harry Harlow
Attachment experiments with monkeys
PARENTINGSTYLES
Authoritarian
Impose rules and expect children to comply
Inflexible on rules
Little explanation or rules or room for discussion
Permissive
Submit to children’s desires
Little use of punishment
Low expectations of children
Authoritative
Demanding and responsive
Enforce rules and explain them
Occassionally flexible on rules after discussion
KOHLBERG’S MORAL DEVELOPMENT THEORY
Describes the development of moral reasoning
Focuses on the why behind moral choices, not the choice itself
Builds on other types of cognitive development
Research using a moral dilemma:
A man’s wife is dying. There is a medicine that could save her, but he cannot afford to buy it. Should the man steal the medicine?
STAGES OF MORAL DEVELOPMENT
Preconventional
Before age 9
Focuses on self-interest
Punishment avoidance or to gain awards
Conventional
Early adolescence
Focuses on care for other and upholding laws and rules because they are laws
Decisions based on social approval
Postconventional
Not everyone will reach this level
Must have reached formal operational stage of cognitive development
Focuses on basic human rights or personal ethical principles
INTELLIGENCE
Types of intelligence
Crystallized
Accumulated knowledge
Increases up to middle age
Fluid
Ability to reason speedily and abstractly
Decreases over time
STABILITY VS CHANGE
Social clock
Culturally preferred timing of life events
What aspects of development remain stable?
Personality preferences
Temperament
Attachment
What aspects change over time?
Social attitudes
Coping
Agreeableness
THE END!
Full transcript