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THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION

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by

Clint Kovach

on 17 November 2016

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Transcript of THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION

England Reacts
Colonist React
Stamp Act Congress
- issued a Declaration of Rights and Grievances to the king in 1765
Non-importation Agreement -
colonial merchants agreed not to buy British goods
England repealed the Stamp Act in 1766
Sons of Liberty
- violent colonist group against taxation from England founded by
Samuel Adams
)
Committee of Correspondence -
started by
Samuel Adams
and
Thomas Jefferson
to help colonies communicate with one another
British Tighten Control
The British wanted the colonies to help pay for the wars against France
Proclamation of 1763 - colonist could not settle west of Appalachian Mountains without permission from England
George Grenville
- prime minister of England; imposed customs duties on imports and exports
Sugar Act 1764
- charged taxes on raw sugar and molasses imported from foreign countries, and taxed wine, silk, coffee, and
indigo
British could seize goods w/o due process
French and Indian War
1763 Treaty of Paris-
1. Spain loses Florida 2. French were out of North America
Consequences
Treaty of Paris - Signed Sept 3, 1783, the US border became the Mississippi River, Florida was given to Spain, and France received colonies in the Caribbean and Africa
20 of the 30 thousand soldiers who died in the revolution died of diseases
Most diseases were waterborne or sanitary (only some were insect related)
Vinegar was used to disinfect wounds and sores (Passing out was anesthetic)
A musket wound to the arm/leg meant you might be ok
A musket wound to the trunk or head was fatal (2 day at most before death)
AMERICAN REVOLUTION:CAUSES, COURSE, CONSEQUENCE
Revolution Begins
Albany Congress
- Ben Franklin brought representatives from England, the colonies, and Native Indians together
Iroquois (neutral) refused to join British and colonist felt protection of the colonies was England's job
Albany Plan of Union
was shot down
1759
British General James Wolfe
sailed up the St Lawrence River to capture Quebec City (Wolfe killed during the battle)
The British urges colonies to work together and make peace with the Iroquois Indians
In 1754 a power battle occurred between the
British
and
French
over the
Ohio Valley
(part of a larger global conflict known as the 7 Years War)
The French traveled the Ohio River to the Mississippi River into New Orleans
The English were land speculators
The
French built forts (Ft. Duquesne)
along the Appalachian Mountains to keep the British out
The
British built forts (Ft. Necessity)
in response to defend against the French
Col. George Washington
was sent to expel the French but was defeated at Ft. Necessity
I can't believe I lost, but then again I am only 21.
Tea Act 1773

- refunded taxes to the East India Company and allowed them to sell directly to shopkeepers bypassing merchants
December 1773
Boston Tea Party
- as British ships awaited custom inspection

150 men boarded the ships and dumped 342 chests of tea into the Harbor

Stamp Act 1765
- required stamps to be placed on most printed materials including newspapers, pamphlets, posters, wills, mortgages, deeds, dice, licenses, diplomas, and cards
The Stamp Act was the 1st direct tax on colonist
March 5, 1770 -
Colonist began harassing British troops at a custom station
, soldiers fired into the crowd killing 5
The
shooting became known as the Boston Massacre
, the British were portrayed as tyrants who kill those who stand up for their rights
Only 6 people signed the Declaration of Independence and The U. S. Constitution.
1.George Read-Delaware
2.George Clymer,
3.Ben Franklin,
4.Robert Morris,
5.James Wilson-Pennsylvania
6.Roger Sherman- Connecticut
Only Ben Franklin signed the Peace of Paris that ended the American War for Independence, as well.
Declaratory Act 1766
- Parliament has the power to make laws for the colonies
Townshend Acts 1767
- a series of taxes and regulations w/ new taxes on tea, glass, lead, paper and paint; the acts also allowed seizure of property w/o due process
Sept 5 , 1774 the 1st Continental Congress met in Philadelphia; wrote a Declaration of Rights
Declaration stated loyalty to the king but condemned the Intolerable (Coercive) Acts
“Give me Liberty or give me Death”
- Patrick Henry
July 4, 1776 - Congress issued the Declaration of Independence (US of America)
Jan 1776 - Thomas Paine attacks King George in a pamphlet called Common Sense
Yorktown Oct 19, 1781 - American and French forces surrounded General Cornwallis who surrendered the British army
Cornwallis
sends
General O’Hara
to surrender his sword (illness) and when
O’Hara
tries to surrender to
Rochambeau
he refuses and points to
Washington
Cornwallis
surrendered 8,000 troops and control of the southern colonies
The British surrender line stretch over 1 mile and the troops threw their weapons down with such force they were breaking

General Cornwallis is told by General Clinton to fortify a deep water port for re-supply
Cornwallis moves to Yorktown, VA with 8,000 men and no siege guns
Man, that line is forever!
I will go with
Rochambeau
to move 17,000 French and American soldiers south from NY
My force will meet with
Dan

Greene
and
Marquis de Lafayette
in Williamsburg, VA
We will have success with the 1st siege line (800yds) so we start a 2nd line (400yds)
Alexander Hamilton
and
Lafayette
will raid Redoubt 9 and Redoubt 10 ending the British hold on Yorktown
I,
French Navy Adm. De Grasse
, will blockade the harbor and force the British navy to return to NY
Cornwallis
will try to escape to Gloucester across the harbor where
Col. Tartleton’s
troops were waiting, but a storm will foil his attempt
June 16,1775 - Battle of Bunker Hill
- colonist gained confidence holding back British regulars but lost in the end (1,000 British dead)
General Howe (British)
had 32,000 men while
General Washington (US)
has 9,000?
Washington
was asked by Congress to defend NY despite the size of the British force (NY was the gateway to Philadelphia)
Dec 25,1776 - Battle of Trenton
- Washington led 2,500 men across the Delaware River to defeat a garrison of Hessians capturing Trenton
Jan 3, 1777 - Battle of Princeton
- Washington outmaneuvered Cornwallis’ advance leaving fires burning in a fake camp overnight
Saratoga 1777
- American Generals Gates and Benedict Arnold along with Dan Morgan outmaneuvered British General Burgoyne who suffered from a shortage of supplies and reinforcements (Howe was in PA)
The American victory at Saratoga convinced the French to join the war (Spoiler Alert!!!! - The victory was a turning point in the war)
Olive Branch Petition -
an apology written by the 2nd Continental Congress following the action at Bunker Hill; promising to stay loyal to the crown should England give them more representation in Parliament (King George III declines petition)
Following
Revere/Dawes/Prescott
warning 137 Minutemen waited for
Maj. Pitcairn's
250 British soldiers.
After waiting 2 hours, 77 men confronted the soldiers in
Lexington
.
Gen. Gage
dispatched 1,000 troops to
Lexington
to arrest
Samuel Adams
and
John Hancock
On march back to Boston (19 miles), British were ambushed from houses (lost 3X more troops than colonist)

8 colonist dead, 9 wounded / 1 British soldier wounded, 1 horse grazed
1778 the
British under General Cornwallis
captured Savanna, GA
Casimir Pulaski
- creator of the American calvary died defending Savanna

1780
Gen. Clinton captured Charleston, SC

(Americans worst/costliest loss of the war)
1780 Mutiny
- NJ then Penn troops refused to fight after not being paid (Upset over treatment not ideology)
1780 Losses
-
Massacre at Waxhaws - Col. Tartleton
kills 130 Americans after they surrender /
Gen Gates defeated at Camden
Battle of Kings Mt., NC 1780
-
General Nathanael Greene
and
Francis Marion (“Swamp Fox”)

defeated the British in North Carolina halting Cornwallis's progress (the southern war turning point)
1780 Battle of Cowpens
-
Dan Morgan
outmanuvered
Tartleton
in western SC
Washington's Failure
- 1777 Defeats in Battles of Bandywine, Germantown , Fort Mercer and Fort Mifflin left Congress debating if Washington should be replaced (Conway Cabal)
Philadelphia fell to the British as the Congress fled to York, PA
Valley Forge Dec 1777-June 1778
Forced to settle late in Winter, conditions were substandard (2,500 of 10,000 soldiers died)
Washington pleeded for supplies, "if we are often without provision now, what is to become of us in spring?"
Baron von Steuben came in Feb 1778 to help train the soldiers in discipline and tactics (franklin recommended)
African American Soldiers
Only the Carolinas and Georgia refused to allow free or slave African Americans to fight
Rhode Island offered $400 per slave to owners to allow them to fight
England openly recruited black soldiers
10,000 African American fought for England / 5,000 fought for the United States
War Against the Natives
1779 - Washington orders Gen. John Sullivan to destroy the Iroquois Confederacy
Sullivan made his way across western Penn. and NY killing Mohawk, Iroquois, and Shawnee (Indian war last into 1790s)
Daniel Boone
-
founded Kentucky, help defeat Shawnee and Henry Hamilton ("Hair-Buyer") in KY, as well as defend Fort Pitt from British attack
Intolerable Acts 1774
- the 1st act shut down Boston Harbor, the 2nd act made all sheriffs and councils appointed by England, and the 3rd act stated all British officials would stand trial in England for crimes committed in the colonies
Quartering Act
- if the colonies did not provide barracks for soldiers they could stay in taverns, inns, barns, or buildings at the colonists expense
April 1775 - 1st shots are fired at
Lexington and Concord
(
“shot heard around the world”
) (Paul Revere, Dawes, Prescott road through Boston to warn the British were coming)
Full transcript