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Transcript of (22) Rome
Romulus & Remus
Mid-point of the Mediterranean Sea
The Roman Republic
is a form of government in which power rests with citizens who have the right to vote for their leaders.
Free- born adult males who were landowners
Wealthy landowners who held most of the power
common farmers, artisans, and merchants who made up the majority of the population
*Could vote/ Could NOT hold gov't positions
*Could vote & Could hold gov't positions
Plebeian assembly where they could elect representatives
Protected the rights of the Plebeians from the Patrician officials
The Twelve Tables
Victory for the plebeians
First written law code
Carved on 12 stone tablets
Basis for Roman law
All free citizens had a right to protection of the law
Serve for one year
serve for life
serve for life
serve for life
The Roman Army:
All citizens who owned land were required to serve in army
To secure certain public offices, ten years of military service were required.
Soldiers organized into military units called
was made up of some 5,000 heavily armed foot soldiers (infantry)
soldiers who fought on horseback
The military organization and fighting skill of the Roman army were key factors in Rome’s rise to greatness.
Around 100 B.C. as Rome grew, the gap between rich and poor grew wider.
A civil war broke out between the two social classes
Beginning to mark the end of the Republic
Was a military leader
Originally joined forces with Pompey & Crassus to form an alliance or
a group of three rulers
Tensions grew between Caesar and Pompey, Caesar overpowered Pompey and takes over as an
one who has total power
In 44 B.C., Julius Caesar is appointed dictator. He governed as an absolute ruler who had total power
He gained popularity by helping the poor by creating jobs, increased pay for soldiers
Many nobles and senators were concerned with Caesar's growing power and popularity
On March 15th, 44 B.C. important (known to Romans as the Ides of March) senators conspired together and stabbed Caesar to death in the senate chamber
Caesar's 18- year old grandnephew
Planned to avenge Caesar's death
Builds and alliance with Marc Antony, a powerful general and Lepidus, a powerful politician
The alliance ends between Marc Antony and Octavian when tensions grow over the future of Rome
Octavian defeats Marc Antony and becomes emperor of the Roman Empire
Octavian becomes Augustus
Octavian became the unchallenged ruler of Rome. This marked the beginning of the Roman Empire
Accepted the title of "Augustus" meaning "exalted (highly ranked) one"
Meaning "Roman Peace"
For 207 years, peace reigned throughout the Roman Empire
Augustus was Rome's more ablest emperor
He glorified Rome with public buildings and civil service
Rome and Christianity
Like the Greek's, the Romans believed in many gods
With the rise in popularity, Christianity began to threaten Roman beliefs and values
Christians were persecuted when they refused to worship Roman gods
A World Religion:
The religion of Christianity grew because:
1.) Embraced all people (men, women, free, slaves, rich & poor)
2.) Gave hope to the powerless
3.) Appealed to those who disagreed with imperial Rome
4.) Offered a personal relationship with a loving God
5.) Promised eternal life after death
Who was he?
Roman Emperor around 312 CE
Why was he important?
During battle he prayed to the Christian God
He credited his success to Christianity
*In 380 C.E. Christianity was made the official religion of the Roman Empire
Around 375 A.D. as the Roman Empire became bigger and bigger, tribes from Germany began to invade various areas.
The Romans called them and other outsiders barbarians
Eventually the continuous attacks led to the break-up of the Empire.
Attila the Hun
A power chieftain named Attila united the Huns in 444 A.D.
Attacked 70 cities
After Attila's death in 453, Huns were no longer a threat to Rome but invasions continued
An Empire No More
The last Roman emperor was a 14-year-old boy named Romulus Augustus. In 476 he was deposed (removed from office) by a German general named Odoacer and was then sent into exile
Rome was then eventually overcome by the outside forces in 476 A.D.
The Roman power in the western half disappeared
The eastern half of the empire, which came to be the Byzantine Empire survived and flourished
Romulus and Remus were twin brothers. They were abandoned by their parents as babies and put into a basket that was then placed into the River Tiber. The basket ran aground and the twins were discovered by a female wolf. The wolf nursed the babies for a short time before they were found by a shepherd. The shepherd then brought up the twins.
When Romulus and Remus became adults, they decided to found a city where the wolf had found them. The brothers quarreled over where the site should be and Remus was killed by his brother. This left Romulus the sole founder of the new city and he gave his name to it – Rome. The date given for the founding of Rome is 753 BC.
The Roman Empire
Rome Conquers Italy
Etruscans (Kings)--> defeated by the Gauls (Celtic people from Po Valley)--> 265 BCE Romans took over all of Italy except for Po Valley
Rome had different laws and treatment for different parts of its conquered territory
Example: The neighboring Latins on the Tiber became
of Rome. In territories further from Rome conquered peoples were
given all the rights of Roman citizenship except the vote
. All other conquered groups fell into a third category,
allies of Rome
Romes Commercial Network
Rome’s location gave it easy access to the riches of the lands ringing the Mediterranean Sea.
Roman merchants moved by land and sea. They traded Roman wine and olive oil for a variety of foods, raw materials, and manufactured goods from other lands.
However, other large and powerful cities interfered with Roman access to the Mediterranean.
The dominant city on the Mediterranean was Carthage, once a colony of Phoenicia. Carthage fought bitterly for control of the Mediterranean
The Punic Wars
Hamilcar commanded the Carthaginian land forces in Sicily from 247 BC to 241 BC, during the latter stages of the First Punic War.
He kept his army intact and led a successful guerrilla war against the Romans in Sicily.
Hamilcar retired to Africa after the peace treaty in 241 BC, following the defeat of Carthage.
Was a Punic Carthaginian military commander, generally considered one of the greatest military commanders in history.
One of his most famous achievements was at the outbreak of the Second Punic War, when he marched an army, which included elephants, from Iberia over the Pyrenees and the Alps into Italy.
was a general in the Second Punic War and statesman of the Roman Republic.
He was best known for defeating Hannibal at the final battle of the Second Punic War at Zama
This earned him the nickname "the Roman Hannibal"
Roman Gods and Goddesses
An Economy Based on Agriculture and Trade
Agriculture was the most important industry in the empire. All else depended on it. About 90 percent of the people were engaged in farming
In Augustus’ time, a silver coin called a
was in use throughout the empire. Having common coinage made trade between different parts of the empire much easier.
Rome had a vast trading network. Ships from the east traveled the Mediterranean protected by the Roman navy. Cities such as Corinth in Greece, Ephesus in Anatolia, and Antioch on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean grew wealthy.
Rome also traded with China and India. The most important of the roads were the Silk Roads, named for the overland routes on which silk from China came through Asia to the Romans
Managing a Huge Empire
The borders of the Roman Empire measured some 10,000 miles.
The Roman army drew upon the men of the provinces as auxiliary, or support, forces.
They were not citizens of Rome. But they learned Roman customs and became citizens when they were discharged from military service.
In this way, the army also spread the Roman way of life to the provinces and Roman rights to non-Romans
A Sound Government
Augustus was Rome’s ablest emperor. He stabilized the frontier, glorified Rome with splendid public buildings, and created a system of government that last for centuries
He set up a civil service. That is, he paid workers to manage the affairs of government, such as the grain supply, tax collection, and the postal system
After Augustus died in 14 AD the senate chose his adopted son Tiberius as his successor.
The Emperors and Succession
Rome’s peace and prosperity depended upon the orderly transfer of power. Because Rome had no written law for selecting a new emperor, a crisis or a civil war was always a possibility when an emperor died
The succession problem was temporarily solved by the leaders known as the Five Good Emperors
The reign of Marcus Aurelius, the last of the five, ended in 180 AD His death marked the beginning of the empire’s decline and the end of the Pax Romana
Men and Women in Imperial Rome
At the heart of Roman society was the family. By law and custom, the eldest man, known as the paterfamilias, or “father of the family,” had power to rule the household.
He controlled all property and had authority over all family members- could execute his own children, banish family members, or even sell them into slavery
Roman women, both rich and poor, had become nearly the social equals of men. Upper-class women ran the household and were given authority and respect.
They had more personal freedom than the women of Greece and than most women would have until the 19th century
Roman women could own property and testify in court. However, they could not vote
Children of Imperial Rome
Romans favored boy children over girls.
Boys would become citizens with the right to vote and would carry on family traditions.
Girls were not even given their own names. Daughters received the feminine form of the father’s name, with “the elder” or “the younger” or a number added, such as Octavia II.
Few children went to school. Those who did were usually boys from noble or wealthy families.
Their schooling continued until they officially became adults at 16- while poor children had to farm and work
Nobel girls were taught from home and usually married from12 to 15, to much older husbands
Slaves and Captivity
Slavery was significant part of Roman Life. The Romans made more use of slaves than any previous civilization.
Most slaves were conquered peoples brought back by victorious Roman armies and included men, women, and children.
Children born to slaves also became slaves. Slaves could be bought and sold. According to Roman law, slaves were the property of their owner. They could be punished, rewarded, set free, or put to death as their master saw fit.
Slaves worked both in the city and on the farm. Many were treated cruelly and worked at hard labor all day long.
Healthy males were forced to become gladiators, or professional fighters, who fought to the death in public contests
Crash Course: ROME
World Religion Comparison Chart
: Jesus in c. 30 CE
: Jerusalem, Israel
: The Bible (The New Testament & Old Testament)
All have sinned and are thereby separated from God.
Salvation is through faith in Christ and good work.
Eternal heaven or hell (or temporary purgatory).
Prayer, church (holy place of worship) on Sundays
Type of Religion (How many gods)
: Monotheistic Religion- Belief in one God
converted to Christianity and made it legal.
Christianity later became the official state religion.
The Church became a source of moral authority.
Loyalty to the Church became more important than loyalty to the Emperor.
The Church became the main unifying force of Western Europe.
Impact of the Church of Rome in the late Roman Empire
Art and architecture
: Pantheon, Colosseum, Forum
: Roads, aqueducts, Roman arches
: Achievements of Ptolemy
: Emphasis on public health (public baths, public water systems, medical schools)
: Latin, Romance languages
: Virgil’s Aeneid-
Latin epic poem, written by Virgil between 29 and 19 BC, that tells the legendary story of Aeneas, a Trojan who traveled to Italy, where he became the ancestor of the Romans
: Roman mythology; adoption of Christianity as the imperial religion
: The principle of “innocent until proven guilty” (from the Twelve Tables)
Contributions of Ancient Rome
Last Attempt to Save the Empire
Rome was struggling with
inflation- a drastic drop in the value of money coupled with a rise in prices
, agricultural hard times and barbaric invasions
became the new emperor in 284 CE and attempted to restore order in the empire and increased its strength.
However, his plans for orderly succession failed. Civil war broke out immediately and
Constantine moved the capital from Rome to the Greek city of
in what is now Turkey- thus being renamed to
Attack of the Huns
The Huns then swept into the West in 452 AD to take over and gain control of the area of the Roman Empire
Ever heard of a Super volcano?