Transcript of History Timelines
Moral Economy - 1800 Moral Economy refers to the capitalist agricultural system that worked to address the needs of the community first, and ensure that producers (farmers) did not benefit from the disadvantage of others. It is an economy based on goodness, fairness, and justice Laissez-Faire - 1817 A laissez faire economy is a type of political economy free from government intervention to optimize economic growth. A purely free market, without any restrictions, was thought by its liberal advocates to be a powerful method of raising living standards, self discipline, independence, and success through the free pursuit of self-interest. Proposed in 1817. "Let them do as they will" Utilitarianism - 1830 Created by Jeremy Bentham, who believed that human responses can be classified as either pleasurable or painful. He believed the impact of legislation should be calculated by the "principle of utility", meaning that laws would be designed to achieve the greatest happiness of greatest number Communism - 1845 Advocated common ownership of all means of production, embraced power of new working class, and believed that only revolution of the middle class (proletariat) would bring a new socialist order Romanticism - 1830 Abandonment of traditions in cultural and social aspects of society. Artisits and writers experienced a 'revolution', where they began to convey intense emotions into their works. The Romantic Movement stirred the imaginative and emotional treatment of life Industrial Revolution - 1750 - 1850 Production of goods became by machine instead of humans, a revolution greatly affecting the advancement of technology and first happened in England. July Monarchy - 1830 Constitutional reforms in French government that was neither republican not democratic, separated the Church and state, and was a liberal oligarchy of property owners Revolutions of 1848 In Europe, liberals and nationalists demanded for a new constitutional order as there was a popular discontent in the countryside and cities. Revolutions sparked first in Italy, then spread throughout Europe Klemens von Metternich - 1815 Prince Klemens was a German born politician who sought to protect the position of Austria in the redrafted European order. He was aristocratic and conservative, and held the role of the Austrian foreign secretary. Henri de Saint Simon - 1820 Henri de Saint Simon was a French social theorist and a founder of Christian socialism, who advocated for industrialists to lead society and found a national community which would eliminate poverty. His thought greatly influenced the foundations of many later philosophies like Marxism and sociology. Schlieffen Plan - 1900 The Schleiffen Plan was the German General Staff's overall strategic military plan for victory in a possible future war against 2 fronts: France to the west and Russia to the east. The plan was introduced by Alfred von Schlieffen, a German field marshal and strategist Dreadnought - 1906 The Dreadnought was a revolutionary type of battleship built that impacted the naval arms race, particularly between the UK and Germany. The ship was the first of its kind to bring an all-gun battleship design with a steam turbine propulsion Marxism - 1900 The fundamental ideology of communism, it holds that all people are entitled to enjoy the fruits of their labour but are prevented from doing so in a capitalist economic system, and the wealthy had made its profits by its theft of other people's labour. The concept was developed by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. Leninism - 1917 Russian military leader Vladimir Lenin argued the necessity of revolution, and Leninism advanced the idea that a dedicated core of revolutionaries could use a political crisis to lead the working class into a full revolution. Leninism provided a Russian interpretation of the political and economic ideologies of Marxism. The Bolsheviks were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party, lead by Vladimir Lenin and the majority of the faction, ultimately leading to the Communist Party of the Soviet Union Battle of the Somme - 1915 Took place during the First World War between 1 July and 18 November 1915 on either side of the river Somme in France. The Battle of the Somme was one of the largest battles of the war, and had been a military operation between the joined forces of the British and French against the Germans. The Battle of the Marne was a crucial First World War battle fought in at the Marne River northeast of Paris, that paved the way for Europe's failures during the war. France launched an offensive on the German forces after they attempted a manoeuvre that caused them to veer away from the line of attack. Battle of the Marne - 1914 League of Nations, international organization established at the Paris Peace Conference (1919) at the end of WWI. It was founded with the main principle of maintaining world peace, although it did not end up being very successful League of Nations - 1919 The Russian Revolution - 1917 The Russian Revolution was one of the pivotal events of modern history. There occurred a series of revolutions in Russia in 1917, which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy, collapsed the Imperial and Provisional government and replaced it with the Communist Party, and led to the creation of the Russian SFSR (Soviet Federate of the Socialist Republic). On January 22nd, 1905, Russian troops massacred several hundred peaceful and unarmed demonstrators who sought to petition the czar at the Winter Palace to grant political reforms and economic relief. Bloody Sunday - 1905 The Treaty of Versailles, signed on June 28th, 1919, was one of the peace treaties at the end of World War I. It ended the state of war between Germany and the Allied Powers, and required, out of its many provisions, for Germany, Austria, and Hungary to accept responsibility for starting the war, and pay reparations for the countries it had caused to suffer. Treaty of Versailles - 1919 Field Marshal Douglas Haig was a British senior officer during World War I. He commanded the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) from 1915 to the end of the War. He was commander during the Battle of the Somme Douglas Haig - 1915 Wilhem II the last German Emperor (Kaiser) and King of Prussia, ruling the German Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia from June 15th 1888 to November 9th 1918. Kaiser Wilhelm II - 1918 Nicholas II was the last czar, or Emperor, of Russia, the Grand Duke of Finland. As head of state, he approved the Russian mobilization of August 1914, which marked the beginning of Russia's involvement in World War I Czar Nicholas II - 1914 Archduke Franz Ferdinand - 1914 Franz Ferdinand was an Archduke of Austria-Este, Austro-Hungarian and Royal Prince of Hungary and of Bohemia. His murder by Bosnian-Serb assassins was to break off Austria-Hungary's south-Slav provinces so they could be combined into a Greater Serbia or a Yugoslavia. His assassination in 1914 sparked the First World War Rasputin was employed by Tsar Nicholas II as a healer for his only son, Tsarevich Alexei, who suffered from hemophilia. Rasputin became an influential figure in the later years of the Tsar's reign. Rasputin was seen as a very strange, religious, and mysterious man, and was adored by the Emperors family but despised by the court and country. He was assassinated by a group of Russian nobles who deemed him a threat. Grigori Rasputin - 1916 Leon Trotsky was a Russian Marxist revolutionary and theorist, Soviet politician, and the founder and first leader of the Red Army. He worked as Lenin's brilliant lieutenant when he joined the Bolsheviks prior to the October Revolution in 1917. Leon Trotsky - 1917 Thomas Woodrow Wilson was the 28th President of the United States, from 1913 to 1921. He had full control of American entry into World War I, and his second term centered on World War I and the peace treaty negotiations in Paris. Woodrow Wilson - 1916 Full transcript
Maltus was an Anglican clergyman and pioneer of demography. This studies about natural control concluded that population will outgrow food supply. Thomas Malthus (1766-1834)
- An Essay on the Principle of Population’s 1st published in 1798 A poet who believed that through an intense experience with nature that humans are able to recapture the innocence of childhood. He was a key figure in the Romantic Movement in English literature along with Samuel Taylor Coleridge. William Wordsworth (1770-1850) - 1798 He was a social reformer, which derived from the thought that the degradation of working people and the rise of sharp class antagonism could result in destructive class welfare. He believed that gradual reform in education, unions and utopianism would fix the unbalanced fabric of society. Robert Owen (1771-1858) - 1817 John Stuart Mill (1806-1873) -1820 An economist and philosopher in his time, Mill played a key role in women’s rights in the time. He insisted that women are equal to men and require freedom to achieve happiness and campaigned to bring an end to women abuse.
Karl Marx (1818-1883) - Communist Manifesto published in 1848 Regarded as the founder of modern communism. Two of his most important works are: The Communist Manifesto and Das Kapital. Thematic
Timeline Shirley &
Zahra Socialism - 1827 An economic system catered to social ownership of institutions and production. Socialism has been a returning idea with industrialization issues throughout history. Benjamin Disraeli (1804-1881) - Began political career in 1830 A British Prime Minister who redefined the Conservative Party as one that based itself on tradition, patriotism and paternalism. He believed there being a connection between paternalistic interests and a deferential working class. Charles Darwin (1809-1882) - Voyage of the Beagal began in 1831 Theorized evolution through natural selection. He was a naturalist who went on many expeditions to the Galapogos Islands in 1835 to study how the environment affects species’ lives. He wrote the “Origin of Species” to prove that all species come from a common ancesetor. Feminism - 1837 An ideology and movements centered on the equalizing the position of women in human society. Feminism is an ideology also first derived from the French Revolution. Napoleon III or Louis Napoleon Bonaparte (1808-1873) - 1848 Served as the President (1848-1852) and Emperor of France (1852-1870). As the Emperor he elevated the French system of government to restore democratic rights and French influence in Europe.
Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900)
- became well known in 1869 A German philosopher who challenged the belief of human reason with the belief that rested upon the human will. “God is dead,”is his most famous phrase meaning that individuals would be able to find purpose through exertion of the human spirit.
Nationalism - 1800s Nationalistic ideological values include a strong sense of citizenship and popular sovereignty. Italian Unification (1848-1871) The Italian Unification involved different states of the Italian peninsula to form into a single state of Italy. It involved an idealistic nationalism and realpolitik policy struggle to reunite the state. Realism - 1850 A style of art depicting life more realistically. Crimean War (1854-1856) A war fought to resist Russian expansion between the Russian Empire and an alliance between the French, British and Ottoman Empires. Politically, it was victory for Napoleon and Russia saw its loss. As a result, Paris was restored as the diplomatic centre of Europe. Otto von Bismarck (1815-1898) - Dominated affairs since 1860s The agent of Germany’s unification, Bismark developed the ‘balance-of-power’ which kept Europe peaceful from 1871-1914. Franco-Prussian War (1870-1871) This war involved a dispute over the succession to the Spanish throne. The war was between France and Prussia because of Bismarck’s editing of a telegram saying that the Hohenzollern candidate would withdraw but only if there was not to be another proposal, making it seem much more brusque. The war resulted in France’s loss with the capture of Napoleon III and they were forced to be under German occupation for 3 years, pay 5 billion francs and had Germany reunited in the Hall of Mirrors. Claude Monet (1840-1926) - 1871 (First Paintings) The founder of impressionist paintings. Monet coined the style of impressionism of being a reflection of perception before nature. Paris Commune - 1871 A government that existed briefly in 1871, it involved the socialists being decimated by the suppression of the Paris Commune. The socialists eventually become to support republican institutions despite being reluctant to collaborate originally as a result of the Dreyfus Affair, Boulanger's failed plot and with the Republic in danger.
German Unification - 1871 Bismark proposed the reorganization of the German confederation and was then formally labelled as a nation state in 1871 at the Versailles Palace’s Hall of Mirrors despite the several conflicts. Dreyfus Affair (1894-1906) Captain Alfred Dreyfus was court martialed for allegedly passing secrets to Germany. Whilst in prison, the charges were then laid against another member of the General Staff and in court army officers attempted to cover-up for Dreyfus. this resulted in the French society being polarized into two hostile camps. Dreyfus was eventually acquitted. The Revolution in Russia first started as a socialist debate between revolution and revisionism. The debates actually transitioned to be an actually revolution and resulted in Nicholas II to create Duma or parliament after the outbreak of strikes, rural unrest and constitutional crisis. Duma was largely in favour of conservative property owners. Bolshevik 1917 Russian Revolution 1905