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Group 1

Bronwyn Hofman

on 15 September 2013

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Transcript of DIET

Advantages & Disadvantages
Advantages & Disadvantages
The Environmental Impact
In Popular Culture
The Medical Effect
Advantages & Disadvantages
In Popular Culture
The Medical Effect
Advantages & Disadvantages
The Environmental Impact
In Popular Culture
Origin & Development
The Environmental Impact
The Environmental Impact
Group 1
Our Sources
When choosing our sources of information many factors were considered in order to help us use the most reliable and credible information. We examined the author; including whether they had any credentials or qualifications, or if they are perceived as reliable or a respected expert in their field. We looked at supporting evidence including whether there were links displayed to support, validate or endorse the information from a third party. We examined the purpose of the information, if it may have been published in order to convince people of a certain view, or to educate people, or to purely share an opinion. Finally we look at the relevance, such as whether the information is current, complete and if there was a contact for further information.
In conclusion, of the four chosen diets in our presentation the oldest diet and the diet with the most advantages in the Asian Diet. A plant-based Vegan diet puts the least amount of stress on the environment while the diet most prominent in popular culture is the Western diet due to its availability and price. There is no general agreement on the "best and healthiest cultural diet" to recommend. However, the Western diet may be considered the least healthiest diet. We hope that this presentation has been an informative online tool that has assisted you in learning more about the Western, Middle Eastern/African, Asian and Vegan Diets.
Projected change in meat and dairy consumption 2005 - 2050 (“Dietary change”, 2012).
Vegan Diet - Environmental Impact
A day's food for a meat eater requires over 15,000 litres of water.
A day's food for a vegetarian requires 5,000 litres of water.
A day's food for a vegan requires only 1,500 litres of water.
(“The Vegan Society of Australia”, 2011).
The video to the left explains how a plant-based vegan diet can reduce carbon emissions by 94%. (Vegan Streams, 2011). A vegan diet can produce fewer greenhouse gas emissions than meat-based diets, putting less pressure on the environment while effectively reducing an individual’s eco-footprint. A varied plant-based vegan diet requires approximately a third of the land needed for conventional Western diet and at least three times the amount of water to feed a meat eater compared with that required to feed a vegan. (“Why Vegan”, n.d.) The World’s oceans benefit from a vegan diet as through ceasing to consume fish (farmed or wild-caught) the destruction of ocean environments can be reversed. (“Environment”, n.d.). The livestock sector (all farmed animals, including pigs, birds raised for meat, egg-laying hens, and dairy cows) is a major contributor to destroying the environment, even higher than the share of transport. Livestock is responsible for 18% of greenhouse gas emissions measured in CO2 equivalent. (“Environmental Destruction”, n.d.).
Western Diet - Environmental Impact
The ‘typical’ diet of people living in the Western World, in particular, Americans, creates the equivalent of nearly 1.5 tonnes more carbon dioxide than a person consuming a plant-based vegan diet, per person every year. (“Environment”, n.d.). A major part of this is due to the vast amounts of meat that Westerners consume, with dairy also contributing significantly. Animals that are farmed for the purpose of being eaten or to produce a product that is eaten require significantly more calories, protein and water and then they themselves create. This requires huge quantities of water and crops in growing animal ‘products’, which is putting increasing pressure on the environment and Earths resources. The process of farming animals and also of growing their feed contributes to other environmental challenges such as land degradation, deforestation and water pollution and land. (“Why Vegan”, n.d.). In the past fifty years meat production has quadrupled and animals farmed for ‘animal products’ now outnumber people by more than three to one. The livestock population is now growing faster than the population of humans. This increase is projected to continue as other cultures increasingly adopt meat-centered diets and as the Western taste for meat, eggs and dairy products. 35 per cent of soil degradation is blamed on overgrazing, 30 per cent on deforestation and 27 per cent on agriculture. These main causes are either directly or indirectly linked to the over consumption of animal products, such as the expansion of agricultural land accounting for more than 60 per cent of worldwide deforestation. (“Environment”, n.d.). The majority of the land is used to graze beef cattle, a staple in the Western diet (see diagram on right). (“How meat contributes to global warming”, 2009)
The Asian diet is generally regarded as being considerably more environmentally friendly than the Western diet, due to containing significantly less dairy and processed food. Rice is the most important crop in the Asian diet (a staple food for more than 3 billion people worldwide), and demand for rice is expected to soon outstrip supply. The CGIAR (originally from the acronym for the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research) Research Program on Rice, known as the Global Rice Science Partnership (GRiSP) is addressing this concern, and among its goals aims to encourage more sustainable rice-based production, and help rice farmers with their adaption to climate change. One of GRiSP’s six research themes is ‘Ecological and sustainable management of rice-based production systems’, and by 2035 they aim to cut climate change impacts by averting nearly 1 billion tons of carbon dioxide equivalent emissions and be producing ‘Greener’ rice; reducing the environmental footprint of the production of rice. (“CGIAR Research”, n.d.). Rice is also becoming increasingly farmed in Latin America and Africa, requiring significant amounts of water and land to grow and harvest. As a result of this, the International Rice Research Institute’s (IRRI) crop and environment research is currently in development of improved management options to ensure rice farming can become more eco-friendly, sustainable and reduce emissions. This development is leading to increased ecologically friendly management principles in addition to resource-conserving technologies. This will assist the diversification of rice systems, notably in Asia, while also ensuring growth in rice production sustainability where there is more land and water available, such as African and Latin American. (“Crop and environment”, n.d.)
Group 1
Middle Eastern/African Diet
The Western diet is also known as the Western dietary pattern or the meat-sweet diet, this diet was chosen to be consumed by developed countries like America. The diet started forming about 10000 years ago when the introduction of agriculture and animal husbandry came about (Cordian.L 2013). In 1860 the invention of the rolling mill allowed people to refine flour to gain the end product of white flour. In 1875, the Americans combined the European roller mill, Oliver Evan’s automated mill, and the recent invention of the purifier to create an outstanding new version of the roller mill (Weight.H 2011) that was used to produce tones of white flour. In America it’s the U.S culture and capitalist economy that has driven the evolution of the current food processing state today. It is also because there has been the reliance on more processed foods than fresh food effectively that has led us to where the western diet stands today. A study in Tonga showed that the reason locals ate imported foods such as refined grains, sugary dessert and high fat foods was because they are less expensive then local foods to purchase. This is one of reason that most of America and developed countries eat a western diet as it is what their incomes can afford.
Transplanting is a tradition method of a rice establishment. Three different rice establishments are dry seeding, wet seeding and transplanting. In 1950 the most dominant method of planting rice in Asia was transplanting. 29 million ha in Asia is land used for direct seeding rice.(Pandy.S 2002) Asian Farmers are dependent on the rice cultivation for their livelihoods and account for 92% of the world rice production.
Vegan Diet
The Vegan diet is minimalist and somewhat restrictive ("9 Pros & Cons of Eating Vegan", 2011) comprising predominantly of fruit, vegetables, whole grains, nuts, legumes and organic foods. Meat, eggs, cheese and animal products of any kind are excluded from this diet(9 Pros & Cons of Eating Vegan, 2011). The vegan diet is based on food in its natural state when consumed and excludes many processed fats, animal fats and sugars associated with disease and poor health ("Going Vegan", 2013).
Vegans aim to source healthier alternatives for necessary fats and sugars from natural ingredients such as nuts, vegetables and fruit. The vegan diet is a healthy one and with it, the risk of heart attacks, high cholesterol, strokes, blood pressure and risk of type 2 diabetes are all reduced ("6 Top Health Benefits", n.d).
Although the vegan diet has many beneficial outcomes there are many health associated and lifestyle disadvantages associated with it. The vegan diet can be very restrictive even more than the vegetarian diet, with a very limited range ingredients and products acceptable as many vegetarian ingredients are derived from animal products ("9 Pros & Cons of Eating Vegan", 2011). A very strong commitment and dedication is vital to successfully maintain the vegan diet. The vegan diet has become increasingly, the mainstream, with many vegan products more commonly available than in the past. It is now recognized as a growing trend and diet option.
Despite efforts to provide essential nutrients and vitamins from non-animal sources, research shows that vegan may experience deficiencies in nutrition such as B12, Omega 3 acids, Vitamin A, Vitamin D, Iron, Zinc and Calcium ("6 Top Health Benefits", n.d). Such vitamins are essential for mood and energy, the exclusion of such vitamins can interfere preexisting medical conditions, and inhibit people with osteoporosis and diabetes for instance from adopting the vegan diet ("9 Pros & Cons of Eating Vegan", 2011).
Traditional Asian diets occur, in over 43 countries ("Asian Diet", 2012) and vary significantly although they are commonly found to be beneficial to the skin, organs, calorie intake, internal body and maintaining a healthy consumption of nutrients ("Asian Diet", 2012).
This diet is largely made up of fruits, vegetables, whole grains and rice ("Pros & Cons of Oriental Cuisine", 2011). With fresh ingredients being a staple, the Asian diet relies on foods which are high in fiber and contain antioxidants ("Asian Diet", 2012). While this diet isn’t heavily reliant upon red meat, fish is eaten regularly and the protein consumption (16%) is within the government recommended range of 10-35% ("Traditional Asian Diet", n.d). Asian diet complies with the government recommendation for fat, protein, carbohydrates, salt, fiber, potassium, calcium, vitamin B and vitamin D intake ("Traditional Asian Diet", n.d). Additional foods which are very healthy and commonly found in the Asian diet are various herbs, spice and soy ("Asian Diet", 2012).
The residents of Okinawa, a coastal region of Japan, are the longest living populations on earth. Jiroemon Kimura, a resident of Japan was the oldest living man dyeing at age 116 years ("Pros & Cons of Oriental Cuisine", 2011).
As well as this diet consisting of healthy ingredients, the eating habits and patters of snacking are emphasized, much of which can be attributed to religion and culture ("Asian Diet and Health", 2013).
A traditional Asian diet is extremely advantageous to health and wellbeing, although many modern and Westernized adaptations to this diet found in most countries around the world include large amounts or fried good and contain preservatives such as MSG. Although these dishes do still include vegetables, the amount of preservatives limits the health advantages and can have adverse effects.
The Western of diet consists primarily of foods high in sugar, salt, fat (about 35%), dairy, high intakes of processed meat (about 15%) and carbohydrates (about 50%) ("The Western Diet Raises Heart Attack Risk", 2008). The traditional food pyramid is inverted in this dietary pattern. Natural fruit and vegetables are often scarce. This alone would suggest that the diet has little to offer nutritionally.
In fact, statistics show that people who follow a western diet increase their risk of premature death by approximately of 50%, with an average age life expectancy of only 51 years, and increased risk of a heart attack 35% ("The Western Diet Raises Heart Attack Risk", 2008). A few of the 200 medically confirmed health concerns that are linked that are linked to the Western diet include; Breast Cancer, Prostate Cancer, Colon Cancer, Pancreatic Cancer, Diabetes, Obesity, Liver Disease, Osteoporosis, Acne and Attention Deficit Disorder ("The Western Diet Really IS a Killer", 2013).
Pesticides, chemicals, drugs and transgenes used in harvesting crops and preparing animals can be viewed in both a positive and negative light (The Western Diet Is a Lethal Disease Vector", 2013).
Pesticides and toxic chemicals found in animals, fruit and vegetables included in Western diet can lead to contraction of infectious diseases. These same chemicals and pesticides ensure the crops remain strong, plentiful and free from insects and infection. Genetically modified crops ensure the availability of seasonal crops throughout the year and in greater quantity ("The Western Diet, 2009"). Conflicting research reports that antibiotics specific to the western world are given to animals to avoid ill health and disease ("The Western Diet, 2009").
While technological advances leading to the use of pesticides and toxic chemicals may be advantageous in protecting crops and livestock from infection, these same chemicals are introducing disease in the human population whose diet depends on these foods.
The Middle Eastern diet varies a great deal depending on the specific country or region being considered. The staples that the diet is reliant upon are generally alike through out Middle Eastern countries.
Middle Eastern cuisine consists mainly of a combination of local and seasonal fruits, grains, vegetables, meat, milk and spices ("African Cuisine", 2013). The most commonly served and consumed meats are beef, seafood or chicken, whilst in North Africa, game such as monkey, crocodile, antelope and warthog are also occasionally consumed ("African Heritage, Diet and Health", 2013). The large amount of red meat typical to the Middle Eastern diet can be problematic in digestion, mainly when consumed by those not accustomed to such eating habits, for instance those in Asian countries.
Adherence to the Middle Eastern diet is associated with the following significant health advantages relating to heart disease, chronic disease, brain functioning, Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, eye health, dental and gum disease and fertility ("African Heritage, Diet and Health", 2013). Statistics show a 9% decrease in mortality, 9% cardiovascular disease, reduction of mortality by 6% as a result of cancer, 13% decrease in Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s disease, 36% decrease in the likelihood brain damage from strokes, 80% decrease of heart disease, 90% decrease of type 2 diabetes("African Heritage, Diet and Health", 2013).
The ingredients found in plant based food such as olive oil, grains, fish and fruit is advantageous to the brain’s cognitive functioning, blood pressure, brain damage and obesity prevention ("African Cuisine", 2013).
Ainslee Sullivan - Origin & Development
Eve Lippmann - Advantages & Disadvantages
Bronwyn Hofman - The Environmental Impact
Marvin Osaghae - Significance in Popular Culture
Saeid Abedi - The Medical Effect

Middle Eastern/African Diet - Environmental Impact
Diets all over the World are changing with sugar, fat, and animal product consumption increasing in nearly all regions of the world. As calorie energy and protein from livestock generally requires an estimated 2.5 to 10 times more energy than from grain, the World's resources are fast diminishing. People in low- and middle-income countries, such as African, still consume far less meat and dairy than those in high-income countries. Despite increased consumption, as can be viewed on the graph to the left (“Dietary change”, 2012), Sub-Saharan Africa is equal with South Asia) as having the lowest daily food caloric intake per capita. (“Dietary change”, 2012). As can be viewed on the graph to the right (Undernourishment”, 2012) North Africa and the Near East have a population of 502 million, with 31 million (7.10%) undernourished. Sub-Saharan Africa has a population of 873 million, with 234 million (26%) undernourished. (Undernourishment”, 2012). The Middle-Eastern and African diets both include a significant amount of crops. As a result of the progression of climate change, it is becoming more plausible that current cropping systems in existing locations will no longer be viable. Under a range of scenarios to 2050, 35 million farmers across three per cent of Africa’s land area are predicted to switch from mixed crop-livestock systems to livestock only.
In Africa results from simulations of a warmer climate of 4 degrees Celsius indicate that increases in the length of the growing period anticipated for parts of East Africa will not necessarily translate into increased agricultural productivity. In fact, maize yields were projected to decline by 19 per cent despite these longer growing periods. (“Impact on crops”, 2011).
("Undernourishment”, 2012)
Group One chose the topic of Diet to accommodate some group members desire to write on specific sub-topics. We will be providing information on the Western Diet; Middle Eastern / African Diet; Asian Diet and Vegan Diet. Ainslee will discuss the origin and development for each diet; Eve will consider each diets advantages and disadvantages, Bronwyn will look at the environmental impact each diet has, Marvin will look at each diet in popular culture, and Saeid will explain the medical effect each diet has on our bodies. We decided to present our information using Prezi as none of us have produced an online presentation previously, and Prezi has a reputation as being easy to use while still creating high quality presentations.
The components of the Mediterranean diet are:
•High mono-unsaturated (olive oil) to saturated fat ratio
•High consumption of fruits
•High consumption of vegetables
•High consumption of legumes
•High consumption of cereals (including bread)
•Low consumption of meat and meat products
•Moderate consumption of ethanol
•Moderate consumption of milk and milk products
Middle Eastern diet emphasizes the use of olive oil, fish, whole grains, fruits, vegetables and legumes as primary foods. Since saturated fat and cholesterol are only found in animal-based foods, this kind of diet is very low in both. Instead, heart-healthy fats, like the monounsaturated and omega-3 fatty acids provided by olive oil and fish, are the primary sources of fats. On this diet, you obtain protein from legumes and fish instead of red meat or poultry. One of the biggest benefits to the Middle Eastern/Mediterranean diet is its effects on heart and blood pressure. The reduction in meat and animal products leads to a less consumption of saturated fats.
Fruits which provide fiber, vitamins, minerals flavonoids and carotenoids are considered main source of folate in the diet. Carotenoids and folic acid appear to play an important role in prevention of coronary artery disease and certain cancers (Ogce, 2008).
Green vegetables, on the other hand, are very rich in phytosterols (the intake of which is associated with a reduction in serum cholesterol levels and cardiovascular risk) and flavonoids with antioxidant activity. In carcinogenesis, intake of dietary antioxidants probably plays an important role (protective) in reducing effect of free radicals. Middle Eastern diet appears to be associated with low rates of chronic diseases (e.g. cardiovascular complications) and certain types of cancer (Ogce, 2008).

Principles of the Asian diet are the balance and moderation that will help to eat right and live longer. The diet based on plant foods such as rice, vegetables (e.g. green tea), and fresh fruits wherein meat is rarely the main dish of any meal, unlike Western diets. However, fish is often considered as a main course. Asian is an extremely healthful diet. Many common chronic illnesses in Western cultures such as cardiovascular disease, cancer, and obesity occur less often in the Asian cultures. The diet is based on fresh food prepared primarily raw, steamed, stir-fried, or deep fried. Soy-derived proteins, rice and or noodle are important part of Asian diet.
Recent investigations suggest that Asian diet might not only prevent some kinds of cancers (e.g. prostate, breast, colorectal) and deliver lower rate of cardiovascular events, but also provide beneficial effects on general health (Schmitz-Dräger BJ, 2012; Wu A, 2009). Another study on possible association between food patterns and metabolic syndrome concluded that dietary pattern that includes cereals, fish , legumes, vegetables and fruits is associated with reduced levels of clinical and biological markers linked to the metabolic syndrome whereas meat and alcohol intakes shows inverse association (Panagiotakos, 2007).
Although there are some striking similarities, the information on the website of US Today suggests that the cultures and the cuisines of the Middle East vary from country to country and from one region to another.
Chicken, beef and lamb are the main sources of protein in their diets. Chunks of these meats are sometimes cut in pieces along with vegetables and cooked as kebabs. Yogurt and cheeses are specially made and used in cooking. More often than not, the main course is served along with a soup made with lentils, beans, peppers or other vegetables. Flatbreads such as pita are also popular parts of the Middle Eastern diets.
By and large, the Middle Eastern food is full of flavour and has strong aroma. They use spices such as cumin, nutmeg, turmeric and caraway to achieve strong flavours that are unique to the cooking of the region.
The Middle Eastern food became popular since the 1990s with the world-wide cry for healthy eating. The benefits of the Middle Eastern diets included reduced risks of heart disease, Alzheimer’s disease and cancer (Wikipedia, 2013).
This is exactly what so many around the world are trying to incorporate into their menus today. For example, according to information present in Wikipedia (2013), Freekeh is a whole grain that has four times the fibre of brown rice, which helps keep blood sugar low. It also has more powerful vision protectors than other grains and helps to increase healthy bacteria in the digestive tract. Healthfulness and freshness are central to the Middle Eastern diet.
Asian diets are some of the most commonly found around the world today. But by experience, Kwong (2013), an Asian, could tell that Asian food as served in Australia, differs significantly from what is being served in China.
A lot of Asians have established Asian restaurants in Australia. The British Australians are gradually falling in love with the Asian cuisines. This is more the reason the Asian restaurateurs would put in all it takes to satisfy the taste of their non Asian patrons rather than striving to achieve an exact copy of the original diet but they get to reap more financial benefits for so doing.
With the expansion of the world’s population and a significant drop in the world economy, more people are spending more time working in an attempt to meet their financial obligations. Less time is given to homemade cookery and food courts now provide a more convenient solution. You could walk into an Asian restaurant in one minute, and be eating on the table in the next, or walk out the other door with a processed and pre-packaged Asian food - ready for consumption. This easily suits the busy lifestyle of a lot more people today.
Nowadays in Australia, you could easily find Asians and non-Asians, as well, happily helping themselves out on an Asian food either in food courts or in fine dining establishments.
“The presence of Asian food – be it some shabby recreation of an authentic Asian dish or an authentic traditional one – signifies that Australia is one step closer to wholly embracing and understanding Asian cultures” (Kwong, 2013).
The term vegetarian refers to any diet that promotes the consumption of plant foods against the consumption of animal foods. At the extreme, a vegetarian diet forbids all animal foods, including animal flesh, dairy products and eggs. Vegan, macrobiotic, and fruitarian diets fall into this class. Less restrictive forms include the lacto-ovo vegetarian diet (which includes dairy products and eggs) and the lacto-vegetarian diet (which includes dairy products)
Various reasons have been given for choosing this type of diet. They include religious, health, or some other form of personal or communal beliefs. Some people, while not vegetarians, refuse to eat the flesh of certain animals due to cultural taboo (Wikipedia, 2013)
According to George (2013), the last few decades of the 20th Century experienced a significant increase in the popularity of vegetarianism in the United States and Europe, as indicated by the number of people claiming to be vegetarian and the increase in published literature promoting the health benefits of vegetarian diets.
Information available on the Kids’ Health 2013 website suggests that a vegetarian diet can be a healthy choice for all kids, so long as it's planned adequately.
In planning a vegetarian diet, the same principles are followed as in planning any healthy diet — provide a variety of foods and include foods from all of the food groups. A balanced diet will provide the right combinations to meet nutritional needs.
This type of diet could be healthier than most other types but its processing could be laborious and its materials expensive. These, in addition to other restrictions it imposes, makes it yet less popular.
Referencing (APA) Part 1
African Food Staples. (n.d) Retrieved from http://www.afrol.com/archive/food_staples.htm
African Heritage, Diet and Health. (2013). Retrieved from http://oldwayspt.org/resources/heritage-pyramids/african-diet-pyramid/african-heritage-diet-health
Asian Diet and Health. (2013) Retrieved from http://oldwayspt.org/resources/heritage-pyramids/asian-diet-pyramid/asian-diet-health
Asian Diet. (2012) Retrieved from http://www.worldofdiets.com/asian-diet
CGIAR Research Program on Rice. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.cgiar.org/our-research/cgiar-research-programs/rice-grisp/
Cordain.L. Eaton.B. Sebastian, A. Mann.N. Lindeberg, N Watkins.A . O’Keefe.J. Brand-Miller.J (2013). Origins and evolution of the Western diet: health implications for the 21st century1. The American Journal Of Clinical Nutrition. Retrieved from http://ajcn.nutrition.org/content/81/2/341.short
Crop and environment. (n.d). Retrieved from http://irri.org/index.php?option=com_k2&view=itemlist&layout=category&task=category&id=577&Itemid=100224&lang=en)
Dietary change. (2012). Retrieved from http://ccafs.cgiar.org/bigfacts/dietary-change/
Environment. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.vegansociety.com/resources/environment.aspx
Environmental Destruction. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.veganoutreach.org/whyvegan/environment.html
How meat contributes to global warming. (2009) Retrieved from http://www.scientificamerican.com/slideshow.cfm?id=the-greenhouse-hamburger&photo_id=DC1D62C4-976B-FC0A-1E8CE7C8FDD7BB7A
Going vegan: Weighing the risks and benefit. (2013). Retrieved from http://www.foxnews.com/health/2013/07/22/going-vegan-weighing-risks-and-benefits/
Greek and Middle Eastern diet. (2004/2013) Diet .com. Retrieved from http://www.diet.com/g/greek-and-middle-eastern-diet
Impact on crops. (2011). Retrieved from http://ccafs.cgiar.org/bigfacts/impacts-on-crops/
Lingam R. (13/1/2010).Why is India vegetarian friendly? Retrieved 3/9/2013, from http://www.indianweekender.co.nz/Pages/ArticleDetails/47/719/Heritage/Why-is-India-vegetarian-friendly
Ogce F., Ceber E., Ekti R., oran N.T., (2008) Comparision of mediterranean, Western and Japanese diets and some recommendations. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Preventation, Vol 9, 351-356
Pandey.S.Mortimer.m.Wade.L.Tuong.TP.Lopez.K.Hardy.B.(2002) Direct Seeding: Research strategiesandopportunities.Retrievedfrom
Sarah. R (n.d). Middle eastern diet. Jillian Michaels. Retrieved from http://yourhealthybody.jillianmichaels.com/middle-eastern-diet-2085.html
Schaeffer . J. ( April 2009) What We Can Learn From Our Primitive Past . Evolutionary Eating. Retrieved from http://www.todaysdietitian.com/newarchives/040609p36.shtml

The Medical Effect
Veganism is a type of vegetarian diet that excludes eggs, dairy products and all other animal-derived ingredients. Nutrient profiles vary among dietary patterns. Unlike non-vegetarian diet (which has the lowest intake of plant proteins, fiber, beta carotene, and magnesium but has the highest intake of saturated, trans, arachidonic, and docosahexaenoic fatty acids), a nutritionally balanced vegetarian diet may provide many health benefits. However a poor meal planning commonly is the cause of most nutritional deficiencies in vegetarian diets. Vitamin B12 deficiency, for example, may occur in vegetarians as the best food sources of the vitamin are animal products. Vitamin, iron and calcium supplements are recommended to prevent common vegan diet deficiencies.
The American Dietetic Association has announced that vegetarian diets, if well-planned, are healthful and nutritious and can help prevent and treat chronic diseases including heart disease, cancer, obesity and diabetes (Vegetarian Diets Can Help Prevent Chronic Diseases, 2009). Also, vegetarian-like diet has been suggested as an effective and functional strategy for preventing cardiovascular disease (Johnston, 2009). It has been reported that even though vegans have much lower intakes of dietary calcium and protein, veganism does not have adverse effect on bone mineral density and does not alter body composition (Ho-Pham, 2009).
Significance in Popular Culture
The economy and the society among other things place so much demand on the people especially those in the developed cities that 24 hours is hardly enough these days to accomplish the day’s itinerary. At the end of a hectic day, some families are lucky enough to manage to reconvene at the home. And in most of such families, while the children complete school assignments, the adults put finish touches to their official or other social work, everyone checks his or her email, and the mother tidies up the home. Soon, its bedtime again and there is hardly enough chance to make meals that would adequately meet the body nutrition’s demands. And the attempt to keep the body and soul going has increased the dependence on the western type diets – the fast foods.
Americans routinely rely on fast food restaurants to provide nutrition for their families. CBSNEWS confirm that 1 in 4 Americans visits a fast food restaurant everyday
The prevalence of drive thru restaurants which are well equipped to serve already made and packaged western diets like burgers has further entrenched the culture of dependence on the western type diets. Furthermore, the food is cheaper. Unfortunately, as Smitty (2008) agrees, these fast foods contain excessively high amounts of fats, sugars, animal products and chemically altered food ingredients and chemical additives.
The inherent design of the food industry in the western cultures virtually guarantees a sick, overweight population.
The Medical Effect
Increasing employment of both men and women in the past few decades in the western societies has led to increasing trend in eating out and consumption of fast foods. The high energy intake due to high saturated fat and sugar content of the diet combined with low energy expenditure may account for escalating rates of adult and childhood obesity. The Western diet is known to have negative effects on health and is considered as being
•high in total energy
•high in saturated fat (butter; red and processed meat)
•high in dairy products
•high in salt
•high in alcohol and
•low in fiber (fruits and vegetables)
There are some complications that may be associated with westernized diet. For example increased risk of breast cancer is associated with higher saturated fat intake. It is considered that low intake of dietary fiber may lead to Colorectal cancer (CRC). Likewise, chronic alcohol consumption may play an important role in causing digestive system cancers and hepatocarcinomas. Higher rate of hypertension and stroke are also linked to high salt and low potassium intake in western countries (Ogce, 2008).
Western-style diet promotes type-2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and various kinds of cancers, leading to a rising death rate.

Origin & Development
The Middle Eastern diets foundations were set during 550–330 BCE when rice, poultry and fruits were introduced. The largest ethnic groups in the Middle East are Arabs, with Turks, Turkomans, Persians, Kurds, Azeris, Copts, Jews, Assyrians, Maronites, Circassians, Somalis, Armenians, Druze . Many people from the Middle Eastern cultures observe Islam and Eastern Orthodox religions, which influence the kinds of food chosen and how the foods are combined. Traditional eating habits include olives, lamb, cheese pitas, honey, eggplant , dates, sumac, chickpeas and wheat. (Sarah.R) The growing of the wheat plants originated in the earliest Middle Eastern agricultural societies but did spread to Eygpt. The product wheat was mostly used to bake into bread. Wheat is the most important grain of the northern hemisphere and also used in Africa. Many families in West Africa grow and raise their own food. Some foods are of great value to those whose lifestyle depends on the farming and hunting of the food. Middle Eastern culture is a strong patriarchal family. Customs and family traditions influence nutrition greatly. The Middle Eastern diet has had some changes over the years but has some similar values still are held today. Food is still considered an integral part of celebration, special days of honour and festivals . Many ancient practices and rituals are handed down from generation to generation.
Origin & Development
The Asian diet is part of many countries such as Bangladesh, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesian, Japan, Laos, Malaysia, Mongolia, Myanmar, Nepal, North Korea, South Korea, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam. Asian cuisine most often refers to East Asian (Chinese, Japanese, and Korean), Southeast Asian cuisine and South Asian cuisine. All of these regions share the same cuisine with rice being the most common food but each region has its own distinct flavors and ways of preparing the food. Rice being the staple food has fed many people as far back as 2500B.C (Roast.T 1997). Beginning in China and the surrounding areas Rice was documented in the history books as a source of food and tradition (Roast.T 1997). Asian Cuisine has become this cuisine today because of rice. Rice is their source of income and trade that led to the many traditionally ways of using rice today eaten steamed and used to produce beer, wine and vinegars.
Origin & Development
Ancient India and Greece is where the history of vegetarianism began. Vegetarianism is the practice of voluntary non consumption of any animal product. India is the home to more vegetarians than any other country. Vegetarianism is a principle of non violence and part of most schools in India. The rise of vegetarianism in India goes back to more than 500 BCE. This is when vegetarianism became linked to a number of religions that originated in ancient India, such as Janinism, Hinduism and Buddhism. The word vegetarianism was not coined until the 1840s (Spencer.C 1995). Today Indian vegetarians make up more than 70 % of the world vegetarians. The vegetarians in India make up 20-42 % of the whole population of India. The reasoning behind the practice of vegetarianism is wide-ranging though influenced mainly by the belief of Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism or Sikhism. It’s also fashionable for Bollywood stars to say they are vegetarians. Vegetarianism is becoming a way of life now, not just in food but also in lifestyle and products as people care more about health, environment and animals (Lingam R. 2010) . People living in these regions face the same reason as the people eating the western diet and that is for the diet of vegan for these countries is it an affordable way to live eating a non meat diet.
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