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Avena Sativa

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Yuju Kim

on 25 July 2013

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Transcript of Avena Sativa

Avena Sativa (Common Oats)
Classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Phylum: Magnoliophyta
Class: Liliopsida
Order: Cyperales
Family: Poaceae
Genus: Avena
Species: Sativa
Phylogeny
Species
There are 29 species of the genus Avena, Avena sativa being an example. It is not extremely diverse and the three main examples are:
1) Slender Oat (Avena barbata)
2) Wild Oat (Avena fatua)
3) Sterile Oat (Avena sterilis)
All three of these species have similar adaptations, and characteristics as Avena Sativa.
Adaptations + Germination
This plant is a notoxious weed however its seeds are edible.
It is found usually in the Eastern side of the US.
(USDA.gov, 2013)
Avena barbata (slender oat)
The wild oat is also a weed. It has hairy seedlings and usually invade agricultures.
It is found all over North America except the Arctic. (USDA.gov, 2013)
Avena fatua (wild oat)
Native to the mediterrian.
Like the slender oat, it is a weed with edible seeds.
(USDA.gov, 2013)
Avena sterilis (sterile oat)
Avena sativa is a monocot plant. It has long, narrow leaves, fibrous roots, and parallel veins. These help it to survive in any environment and multiply extremely fast.

1) thin, fibrous roots
Its roots help the plant to grow almost anywhere; it does not need to have certain environmental conditions to grow. This is because the plant can easily plant its roots into the ground, while feeding on other plants' nutrients. This means that it can grow in ANY soils as long as there are other plants. One disadvantage is that it may easily be pulled out due to its thin roots. However, because it can grow almost anywhere and multiply fast, it has no problems with survival.

2) long, narrow leaves
Its narrow leaves also helps it to grow anywhere as the plant does not have to compete for space. Because it is so thin, it can grow in the smallest spaces between other plants and spread.

Bloom Time: Mid Summer (annual)
Seed Spreading: Wind blows seeds to other areas
Sun Exposure: Full Sun
Height: 24-36 in.
(Dave's Garden, 2000)

Germination
Poaceae are a grass family of monocotyledonous flowering plants. The Poaceae are the world’s most important source of food. They are the most abundant family of the Earth’s plants. (Campbell, 2013)
Poaceae
This is an order of flowering plants.
(Factolex, 2007)
Cyperales
Magnoliophyta, are flowering plants (also known as angiosperms), and are the most diverse group of land plants, with about 250,000 to 400,000 species. They are seed-producing plants. (Soultis, 2001)

Magnoliophyta
The Plantae includes all land plants: mosses, ferns, conifers, and flowering plants. With more than 250,000 species, they are second in size.
(Pearson, 2007)
Plantae
Liliopsida, or Monocots, are a class of the angiosperms. They are identified by the single cotyledon inside the seed. (Robinson, 2002)
Liliopsida
A genus commonly known as the oats. It is a genus of grasses and are usually invasive or weedy. There are 29 species in this genus. (Baum, 1977)
Avena
A species of Avena, commonly known as oats. Its seeds can be consumed as cereals or oatmeal. (Nesbitt, 2005)
Sativa
Cladogram
adaptations (environment)
Avena sativa can be grown on almost any agricultural soils. This plant/weed and similar species are by far the most widespread. They adapted to warmer, subtropical conditions in the south, poor soils and low summer temperatures more up north, and has been cultivated for grain and straw in the more mountainous parts of Northern Europe and in other places such as Eastern and Central Europe where conditions are not well suited for the common oat.

Even its germination times differ according to its environment. In temperate climates it is usually a spring-sown crop while in sub-tropical and Mediterranean conditions it is grown in the cool season. As you can tell this species can adapt to almost any conditions and is highly efficient in terms of adaptation.
(Suitte, 2000)
Genomes
(species,
accesion
,
genome
)
A. longiglumis
CIav 9071

AIAI
A. wiestii
CAV 548

AsAs
A. canariensis
IB 105

AcAc
A. strigosa
CIav 2921

AsAs
A. clauda
CAV 5566

CpCp
A. abyssinica
CIav 2109

AABB
A. barbata
PI 268214

AABB
A. maroccana
CIav 8331

AACC

A. murphyi
CAV 2832
AACC
A. sterilis
CIav 8336

AACCDD

A. fatua
UM 5

AACCDD
A. byzantina
Kanota

AACCDD
A. sativa
Ogle
AACCDD
(Leighty, 1917)
The oldest known species of Avena satica were found in Egypt, around about 2,000 B.C. However, they did not use them until later on; the first cultivated oats were found in Switzerland. Avena sativa were first brought to North America with other grains in 1602. The original plant did not reproduce as fast nor adapt to its environment as well.
Origin
Changes from its Origin
There are two main changes from its original form.
1) The species used to be much shorter with fragile roots - it slowly became taller and more sturdy as nature selected the more suitable genomes. (this is an example of complete dominance)
2) Secondly, the plant developed much thicker seed covers, as those with thinner covers were easily eaten by birds or insects and did not pass their genes as easily. (this is also complete dominance)
(Dao, 2000)
(Leighty, 1917)
(Ditomaso, 2010)
(Samanek, 2010)
(Moerkerk, 2010)
Full transcript