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The Vietnam War
Transcript of The Vietnam War
•Estimating the amount of casualties in the war is extremely difficult, but it’s estimated around 1.7 million total people were killed, and at least 58,500 Americans were killed. People today are still being killed by unexploded ordinance, particularly cluster bomblets. January 23, 1973: President Nixon announces that an agreement has been reached which will “end the war and bring peace with honor.”
January 27, 1973 - The Paris Peace Accords are signed by the U.S., North Vietnam, South Vietnam and the Viet Cong. Under the terms, the U.S. agrees to immediately halt all military activities and withdraw all remaining military personnel within 60 days. The North Vietnamese agree to an immediate cease-fire and the release of all American POWs within 60 days. An estimated 150,000 North Vietnamese soldiers presently in South Vietnam are allowed to remain. Vietnam is still divided. South Vietnam is considered to be one country with two governments, one led by President Thieu, the other led by Viet Cong, pending future reconciliation.
The exposure of U.S. involvement in war crimes such as the massacre at My Lai (see My Lai incident) helped to turn many in the United States against the war.
• The My Lai incident happened in the Vietnam War. It was massacre of Vietnamese civilians by U.S. soldiers. On Mar. 16, 1968 a unit of the U.S. army American division led by Lt. William L. Calley invaded the South Vietnamese hamlet of My Lai , an alleged Viet Cong stronghold. In the course of combat operations, unarmed civilians, including women and children, were shot to death (the final army estimate for the number killed was 347). The incident remained unknown to the American public until the autumn of 1969, when a series of letters by a former soldier to government officials forced the army to take action. Several soldiers and veterans were charged with murder, and a number of officers were accused of dereliction of duty for covering up the incident. Special investigations by the U.S. army and the House of Representatives concluded that a massacre had in fact taken place. Of the many soldiers originally charged, only five were court-martialed
•The My Lai incident aroused widespread controversy and contributed to growing disillusionment in the United States with the Vietnam War.
Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam):55,629
Gun, Small Arms Fire:18,518
Multiple Fragmentary Wounds: 8,456
Air Loss, Crash on Land:7,992
Other Explosive Devices:7,450
Artillery, Rocket or Mortar:4,914
Vehicle Loss, Crash1,187
Accidental Self Destruction:842
Air Loss, Crash in Sea:577
Unknown, Not Reported:520
Causes of death Battle at the Hamlet of Ap Bac
On January 2, 1963, the Army of the Republic of Vietnam 7th Division was ordered to destroy a Viet Cong in the Hamlet (AP) of Tan Thoi. The plan was for Army of the Republic of Vietnam infantry to be landed by helicopter to the north of the hamlet, while two Civil Guard battalions supported by a company of M-113s approached from the south through the neighboring hamlet of Bac. Originally it was believed that the transmitter was guarded by an estimate of 120 Viet Cong. In reality it was guarded by about 360.
Siege of Khe Sanh
The Battle of Khe Sanh began at 5:30 am, 21 January 1968. The North Vietnamese Army forces hammered the Marine-occupied Khe Sanh Combat Base with rocket, mortar, artillery, small arms, and automatic weapons fire. Hundreds of 82-mm. mortar rounds and 122-mm. rockets slammed into the combat base. Virtually all of the base's ammunition stock and a substantial portion of the fuel supplies were destroyed. The actions around Khe Sanh Combat Base, when flashed to the world, touched off a political and public uproar as to whether or not the position should be held.
The Tet Offensive was a series of battles in the Vietnam War. It was a major offensive by the North Vietnamese Army (NVA) and Viet Cong (VC or NLF) beginning on the night of January 30-31, 1968, T?t Nguyên Ðán (the lunar new year day). It involved military action in almost every major city in southern Vietnam and attacks on the US firebase at Khe Sanh. The NVA suffered a heavy military defeat but scored a priceless propaganda victory.
In 1961, South Vietnam signed a military and economic aid treaty with the United States leading to the arrival of U.S. support troops and the formation of the U.S. Military Assistance Command in Vietnam.
In early 1965, the United States began air raids on North Vietnam and on Communist-controlled areas in the South; by 1966 there were 190,000 U.S. troops in South Vietnam. North Vietnam, meanwhile, was receiving armaments and technical assistance from the Soviet Union and other Communist countries.
Despite massive U.S. military aid, heavy bombing, the growing U.S. troop commitment (which reached nearly 550,000 in 1969), and some political stability in South Vietnam after the election (1967) of Nguyen Van Thieu as president, the United States and South Vietnam were unable to defeat the Viet Cong and North Vietnamese forces. Optimistic U.S. military reports were discredited in Feb., 1968, by the costly and devastating Tet offensive of the North Vietnamese army and the Viet Cong, involving attacks on more than 100 towns and cities and a month-long battle for Hue in South Vietnam
Viet Cong, known as the People's Liberation Armed Forces in South Vietnam. The term was originally applied by Diem's regime to Communist troops (about 10,000) left in hideouts in South Vietnam after the Geneva Conference of 1954, following the French Indochina War (1946–54).
Most Communist troops, according to the agreements, had withdrawn to North Vietnam. Supported and later directed by North Vietnam, the Viet Cong first tried subversive tactics to overthrow the South Vietnamese regime, then resorted to open warfare.
They were subsequently reinforced by huge numbers of North Vietnamese troops infiltrating south, and aided in the reunification of Vietnam following the collapse of South Vietnam in 1975.
The Vietnam war began soon after the Geneva Conference provisionally divided (1954) Vietnam at 17° N lat. into the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) and the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam).
It escalated from a Vietnamese civil war into a limited international conflict in which the United States was deeply involved, and did not end, despite peace agreements in 1973, until the North Vietnam's successful offensive in 1975 which resulted in South Vietnam's collapse and the unification of Vietnam by the North.
Ngo Dinh Diem (President of North Vietnam) launched a guerilla campaign in South Vietnam, led by Viet Cong units, with the goal of uniting the country under communist rule. The United States, seeking to stop the spread of communism, trained the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) and provided military advisors to help combat the guerillas.
By the 1950's the United States joined the ongoing Vietnam War between the French and the North Vietnamese . The war would last 25 years making it the longest war in history of the United States. Totaling 2.5 million casualties on both sides and rendering distruction in Vietnam as well as the United States.
Fall of Saigon
The Fall of Saigon occurred on April 30, 1975 when the South Vietnamese government announced its unconditional surrender to the Vietcong.
The President who has been in office for just three days, made the announcement in a radio broadcast to the nation early in the morning. He asked the South Vietnamese forces to lay down their arms and called on the Vietcong to halt all hostilities. Directly addressing the Enemy forces, he stated: "We are here to hand over to you the power in order to avoid bloodshed." The announcement was followed by the swift arrival of Vietcong troops. Their entrance was virtually unopposed, contradicting any predictions of a long and bloody final battle for the city. The front line of tanks smashed through the gates of the presidential palace within minutes, and at 1130 local time , decades of war came to an end.
Work Cited Nature, Their. "Statistical Information about Casualties of the Vietnam War." National Archives and Records Administration. Web. 02 June 2010. <http://www.archives.gov/research/vietnam-war/casualty-statistics.html>.
"Vietnam War Casualties." Vietnam War. Web. 02 June 2010. <http://www.vietnam-war.info/casualties/>.
"Vietnam War: U.S. Involvement — Infoplease.com." Infoplease: Encyclopedia, Almanac, Atlas, Biographies, Dictionary, Thesaurus. Free Online Reference, Research & Homework Help. — Infoplease.com. Web. 02 June 2010. <http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/history/A0861795.html>.
"The Viet Nam Wars." The Wars for Viet Nam. Web. 27 May 2010.
Q: What was one of the four Major battles during Vietnam?
Q: What president would announce an agreement to "end the war" in 1973? Q: How many casualties did the U.S suffer throughout the Vietnam War? Q: What was an abbreviation for the Vietcong? Q: What part of Vietnam did the Major Battle of Saigon take place in? Q: How many years did the Vietnam War last? Q: True/false, Vietnam was the longest war in the history of the United States. Q: What action did the Geneva Conference perform to kick off Vietnam’s division? Q: When did the U.S withdraw forces from Vietnam? Q: What group of people in Vietnam allied with the United States? Q: What was the number of total causalities that occurred during Vietnam including both sides?
Q: What year did the Fall of Saigon occur?
Q: What does NVA stand for?