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# Biology SOL Review

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## Elizabeth Baber

on 10 May 2013

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#### Transcript of Biology SOL Review

Biology SOL STEPS OF SCIENTIFIC METHOD
1. Design an experiment.
3. Create a hypothesis.
4. Seng up a controlled experiment.
5. Record and analyze data.
6. Draw a conclusion. Bio 2. BIO 3 Cells BIO 4 Kingdoms YOU WILL PASS THE TEST! A Step by Step Map to Success BIOLOGY SOL REVIEW Bio 1. Sources of Experimental Error
Measurements without well defined values.
No measurements at all
Mulple independent variables
No controlled variable
Scientific problem is not clearly defined Scienfic Theories that have been
changed/ modified over time.
Cell Theory
Spontaneous Generation Complete the Questions
1. If the high power objecve on a microscope is 40X and the ocular is 10X, what is the total magnification of high power?

2. Aurora is working on a project. “Does sour loon affect the speed of hair growth?” Her family is willing to volunteer for the experiment. Describe how she should perform the experiment and idenfy the control group, independent and dependent variables. Label the parts of the microscope Scientific Investigation
Graphing
Independent variable on the X axis and dependent variableon the Y axis

Independent Variable
The variable that is changed or manipulated.

Dependent Variable
The variable that is changed as a result of the manipulated variable.

Constant
The variable that remains the same in each and every trials.

Control
An experiment without variables.

Quantative Data
recorded as a numerical value.

Qualatative Data
recorded which has a descriptive value.( language)

Hypothesis
is a proposed scienfic explanaon for a set of observaons.

Theory
A set of statements or principles devised to explain a group of facts or phenomena, especially one that has been repeatedly tested or is widely accepted.

Law
A statement that describes invariable relationships among phenomena under a specified set of
conditions

Inference
An interpretation based on prior knowledge

Prediction
A rigorous (often quantitative) statement about what will
Properties of Water due to Hydrogen Bonding
Cohesion- attraction of similar molecules
Water is the universal solvent

Water is essential for life on Earth.
Water absorbs heat when it evaporates, allowing organisms to release excess heat.
The solid form of water, ice, floats, preventing lakes and oceans from freezing solid. Main components of living cells;
No one Can Help Our Pupils Study
Nitrogen, Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Phosphorus, Sulfur Macromolecules

Fat/lipids
Structure- fatty acids and glycerol
Function-cell membrane, insulation, energy
Protein
Structure- amino acids
Function- catalyst, chemical messenger
Nucleic Acid
Structure- sugar, nitrogenous base & phosphate
Function- genetic information
Carbohydrate
Structure- carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
Function- food energy The pH Scale
Acids are from 0-7
Bases are from 7-14
Neutral is 7

*Substances added to H20 can lower or raise the pH.
* pH and temperature can change the structure of proteins and alter their function.* Enzymes are catalyst- they speed up reactions
Lock and Key
- enzymes fit in a specific activation site Photosynthesis
- Uses water to convert CO2 and light energy to O2 and chemical energy (glucose)
- Does this in the chlorophyll of chloroplasts

Cell Respiration
- Breaks down glucose with oxygen present to produce CO2, water and energy
- Does this in the mitochondria Biochemistry Intro Cell Theory

1. All living things are composed of one or more cells by the process of cellular reproduction.
2. Cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things. Because many of these structures act as if they are specialized organs, these structures are known as organelles, literally “little organs.”
3. New cells are produced from existing cells. Prokaryotic Cells
- very small
- no clear nuclear region
- single chromosome
- no nucleolus
- no organelles
- no mitosis Eukaryotic Cells
- fairly large
- nuclear membrane
- more than one chromosome
- nucleolus present
- organelles present
- cell division through mitosis Cell Discoveries
Hooke- discovered cells
Leeuwenhoek- discovered microorganisms 1. If a jelly (coelenterate) was put in fresh water, what would happen to it? Why? _____________________2. Why is energy needed for active transport? _______________
The surface area to volume ratio of an object decreases when its size increases.
Thus small size facilitates the exchange of material into and out of the cell Hypotonic: The RBC expands due to lower concentrati􀆟on of solute than in the cell.

Hypertonic: The RBC shrivels due to a higher concentra􀆟tion of solute than in the cell.

Isotonic: The RBC and solu􀆟tion are equal. Homeostasis: Is the ability or tendency of an organism or cell to maintain internal equilibrium by adjusting its physiological processes.
Metabolism is the chemical processes occurring within a living cell or organism that are necessary for the maintenance of life. In metabolism some substances are broken down to yield energy for vital processes while other substances, necessary for life, are synthesized
Diffusion is the movement of molecules from an area of greater concentration to an area of lesser concentration. E.g. Exchange of gases in the lungs or body issues.
Osmosis (ocean =H2O) is the diffusion of water through a semipermeable membrane from an area of low solute to an area of high solute concentration.
Facilitated diffusion is the passive transport of molecules down a concentration gradient. It is simply diffusion that involves a protein to make diffusion happen more easily across a cell membrane.
Acve transport is the moving of substances across the cell membrane using the cell's energy.
Molecules are moved against a concentration gradient, i.e. they move from an area of lesser concentration to an area of greater concentration. This is done by carrier molecules which gets its energy from ATP.
Cell Wall- Supports and protects;rigid;strong
Plasma (Cell) Membrane- selectively permeable; allows materials to enter and leave

Nucleus Controls cell activities

Cytoplasm Jellylike substance; holds organelles in place; contains dissolved substances

Chloroplast Contains chlorophyll; makes food from lightduring photosynthesis; glucose

Mitochondria Power house; makes energy (ATP); breaks down food

Vacuole Fluid filled sac; stores water, food, chemicals

Chromosomes (DNA) Works with ribosomes in protein synthesis

Ribosomes Site of protein synthesis

Nuclear Membrane Controls movement in or out of nucleus

Centrioles Separates chromosomes during cell division

Endoplasmic Reticulum Transports chemicals between cells and within cells; Intracellular highway

Golgi Bodies Modifies chemicals to make them functional; sorts, packages, secretes chemicals in and out of cell

Lysosome Breaks down waste materials 1. Archaebacteria
2. Eubacteria
3. Protista
4. Plantae
5. Animalia
6. Fungi Germ Theory of Disease:
Antoni van Leewenhoek first to see bacteria.
Robert Koch's Postulates are a sequence of experimental steps directly relating a specific microbe to a specific disease
Louis Pasteur and Koch credited with Germ Theory
Microorganisms enter body a number of ways
Natural immunity is an inherited resistance to infection.
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