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Photovoltaics Design For Wastewater
Transcript of Photovoltaics Design For Wastewater
VANESSA SILVA LOPES
Presentation of the master's thesis topic about
Dual System and Hybrid Pump for Wastewater Treatment in Hydroponic System
UNIVERSITY OF LISBON
Professor Dr. Samuel Niza
Professor Dr. Oriol Gomis
Professor Dr. Jordi Moratò
(CAT -UNESCO Sustainability)
CHAPTER 1 :
CHAPTER 2 :
CHAPTER 3 :
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ETSEIB: Escola Tècnica Superior d'Enginyeria Industrial de Barcelona
IST: Instituto Superior Técnico
Economic and Environmental Impacts
How to use less energy to remove Nitrogen and Phosphorus from wine industry (Codorniu )wastewater ?
Strategies to treat water;
Potential relevant patents.
Solar Photovoltaic Energy
Waste Water Treatment
The sun sends us 23,000 terawatts of usable energy every year without any cost. (Crabtree & Lewis, 2007; Thirugnanasambandam, Iniyan & Goic, 2010).
The use of solar energy is one of the most promising energy alternatives to solve part of the energy shortage problems faced by the world population (Kannan, N. & Vakeesan, D. ,2016).
Photovoltaic solar energy is obtained by direct conversion of light into electricity, called photovoltaic effect and is held by the photovoltaic devices (PV) (Hoffmann, 2010)
The cost of photovoltaic systems is only partly determined by the cost of solar cells, efficiency is a key driver to reduce the cost of solar energy. There are several material systems being explored to achieve high efficiency at low cost (Polman et al.,2013).
The energy bill for WWTP could account about 3% of the Spain Energy Consumption, that is equivalent to 1.05 billion euros/year. It means that just for treatment of nitrogen and phosphorus is spent more than 840 million euros/year, according SHARON,2010
Experts consider as very important development of technologies to reduce energy consumption in nutrient removal processes. However, they suggest that new treatment technologies are increasing considerably the energy consumption of debugging. Is important to consider that the decisions about reduce energy consumption will have a big impact on the power consumption. (OPTI,2012).
The denitrification of nitrite saves 40% of chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrification limited to nitrite saves 25% of aeration energy. More than 80% of the energy demand related to the treatment of high strength ammonia wastewater is contributed to aeration energy. Therefore, a 25% reduction of the aeration energy is a significant decrease in the overall energy consumption. (SHARON,2010).
There is an increasing need for developing low cost and energy saving in WWTP systems. treatment plants use more and more energy in order to achieve the legal frameworks for wastewater discharge.
Water treatment coupled with the hydroponics systems can be the key to alleviating demand for limited freshwater reserves and high energy consumption in wastewater treatment plants.
They can also provide nutrients present in these waters for ornamental plants and / or vegetables, improving revenue with carbon credits and horticulture. In the same way, providing high efficiency in the treatment system and even saving a large quantity of energy and money.
Water fall by gravity irrigating the plants
Submersible or not, through impellers, the centrifugal pump transfers centrifugal energy to the fluid, generating a suction pressure that produces the pumping flow at high speeds.
Water Flow (Q) :3,6 m³ / h
Water lift up: 3,7 m
Diameter (D): 0.025 m
Velocity Flow (v) :0.204 m / s
Friction Factor (f): 0.08
Total Charge Loss :0,0503 m
Power of the Electric Motor: 50W
Efficiency: 75,6 %
Photovoltaic Design- Dual System
Less impacts for hydric resources
and generating carbon credits by the plants;
Reduce of the impacts from increased use of landfill,
and incineration for sludge;
Reduce CO2 emissions (including energy recovery) and
CO2 taking from the atmosphere
of wastewater treatment
Improvement in the
,healthcare and provide sanitation facilities
Save and recycling water involving
reduction of smell,
noise, micropollutants, aerosols and greenhouse gases.
The Dual System is the combination of a water pump and an airlift pump with a pressure chamber. The lift liquid occur by compressed air introduced near of the lower end of the water pump pipe. The flow regime is widely highlighted by the air pump operation potentialized due the pressure chamber
Ismael Lázaro Freeride
Master Student of Architecture
Doctoral Student of Agronomy
Treatment and Water Quality
Master Student of Automation and robotics
Control and Automatization
Master Student of Environmental Engineer
Pumps and Energy
The submergence ratio (SR)is defined as the average pressure gradient along the tube i.e. the ratio between the submergence (static height of water (H)) and the total length of the pipe (the sum of the static height of water (H) and the lift height (L)). This ratio has to be set above 0.7 to obtain efficiency comparable to other pump types (Kassab et al., 2007).
SR=H/L = 0,7/3,7 = 0,19 < 0,7
H= 0,7m (reservoir high = static height of water )
L= 3,7 m ( wall high)
Considering L = 0,99 m , SR=H/L = 0,7/0,99 = 0,71> 0,7 , so it is possible conclude that the airlift can just contribute in lift the water 1m high.
EHEIM 400 with 2 outlets control
400 l/h ,
price around 36 euros
Taking in account that there is 21% of oxygen in the air. Considering the conditions of the prototype , this pump is able to provide about 1,4 L of oxygen in each cycle of water.
Considering that the energy cost (kWh) in Spain for Industry is 0,113 €/ kWh, and the energy consumption of the prototype is 3,62 kWh/day, in one year the energy consumption of the prototype will be almost 150 euros, as showed in the following calculation:
(0,133 €)/kWh X (3,62 kWh)/day X (360 days)/year
It means that in about 15 years (considering fixed tariff of energy) the photovoltaic system is amortized and it will produce an income of 750 € at the end of 20 years (time life of a photovoltaic system) because of the energy consumption saving of the prototype.
- Note that the size of the photovoltaic system is
and during the
could occur over energy. But at the same time, the
in this season while on the other hand the
oxygen dissolved decries
. Thus it is suggested that during the summer the extra energy could be used to power more times the
"O HOMEM DEPENDE DO SEU PENSAMENTO"
The term hydroponics was introduced by Gericke to describe all methods of growing plants in liquid media. (Savvas, 2003).