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Sci7- Unit 5- topics 7-8-9-10
Transcript of Sci7- Unit 5- topics 7-8-9-10
or heating of tectonic plates, where the build up of heat and pressure can cause folding and faulting The upward, or top part of folded rock is called anticline, the bottom is called syncline rock that is too brittle to fold under heat and pressure, will break, called thrust faulting When older rock ends up on top of younger rock as a result of thrust faulting, the result is the formation of fault block mountains Movement of rock along a fault can be vertical or horizontal Mountains that are jagged at the top are 'young' mountains More rounded mountains (due to erosion and weathering) are known as the 'old' mountains The Himalayas are the youngest mountain range with the highest mountains (and still growing) Play the first couple of mins Important terms to know:
3. Thrust Faulting
4. Fault Block Mountains
5. Basement Rock one of the oldest ranges is the Laurentian Mountains, in Quebec (they are being worn down) Young OLD Fossils are preserved impressions in rock that tell us
living organisms lived
and behaved millions of years ago. WHEN, WHERE,
HOW Types of Fossils Remains of dead plants and animals that have been protected from scavengers can become fossilized in a number of ways: - petrified (rock-like) fossils preserve the bones of dead animals by using silica - an outline or impression from the carbon residue on rock surfaces can provide a carbonaceous film - original remains
may be preserved
in tar, amber or
peat bogs - trace fossils are evidence of animal activity, like worm holes, footprints, and burrows and http://blueridgediscoveryproject.blogspot.ca/2011/07/exploring-talus-of-turk.html
http://peakfood.co.uk/tag/fossil-fuels/ The mould which is then filled with more sediment and hardens into rock, making a cast of the original animal. Fossil Mould and Cast Formation An animal dies in mud and gets covered by more sediment. The body dissolves, leaving a mould. 2:35 2:00 The principle of superposition states that in undisturbed layers of rock, the oldest layers of rock are always on the bottom and the youngest layers or rock are always on the top. This layering is called strata. Geologists use a technique called relative dating, to find the order in which events occurred.
The relative age of the rock is determined by its position within the strata.
Fossils found in a layer can help to identify the age of the rock.
If the fossil was on the Earth for a short time and widespread then it is called an index fossil. The geological time scale is a division of Earth's history into smaller units based on the appearances of different life forms.
(see Figure 5.87, p. 426)
The largest divisions are called eons, which are divided into eras and then further divided into periods.
Pangaea was the second supercontinent (Ref. p. 425) Geological Time Scale Petroleum is a naturally occurring mixture of hydrocarbons, such as bitumen, coal, oil and gas. It is found in sedimentary rock basins, which were formed from the sediments of tiny plants and animals deposited in the mud and silt. The soft parts of these organisms were transformed into solid, liquid or gas hydrocarbons called fossil fuels. Coal is usually formed from plants that grew on the land, Oil from water-based plants and animals Natural gas from land-based or water-based plants and animals WRAP-UP p. 433
1-5 (do not worry about the cross word) p. 430- 431- Get photocopy, and assemble page
(complete p.430 questions 1-4) - There are three ways that oil and gas can be trapped
(see Figure 5.91, p. 429):
A - thrust fault
B - normal fault
C - reef Finding and Mining Fossil Fuels (Western Canada Sedimentary Basin)