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Literacy

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sarah church

on 17 October 2013

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Transcript of Literacy

Literacy!
Spelling, Grammar and Punctuation...

uses complex grammatical structures and a range of punctuation with success
uses sentence demarcation accurately
uses a variety of sentence forms to good effect
accurate spelling of more ambitious words
usually uses standard English appropriately
GCSE Grammar
Mark Scheme

Parts of Speech
Grammar


A
noun
is a person, place or thing
As Paula, Amsterdam or string.

A
pronoun
for a noun you’ll see
As it, I, she, he, they, you, we.

An
adjective
describes a noun
As Robbie’s hair is short and brown.

A
verb
tells that there’s something done
As climb and walk and talk and run.

An
adverb
tells when, how and where
As now and silently and there

A
preposition
lets you know
If something’s on, above, below.

Conjunctions
join and, but, so
Until, because, unless, although.
The fox ran for cover
Expanding Sentences.
Add an adjective
Add an adverb to
say how he ran
Add a description of
the path he took
Add in where he took cover.
Add a phrase to tell us
how the fox was feeling
Expand these sentences to write a powerful paragraph
The fox stopped.
He heard the barks of dogs.
The hunters appeared.
They set the dogs on the fox.
The fox ran for cover.
Consequences...
A definite article + an adjective
common noun
present tense verb
adverb
preposition
article + adjective
common noun
On a piece of plain A4 write down a definite article followed by an adjective e.g. 'the smelly'
Fold the paper over and pass it to the person next to you.
Add the next word in the sequence and fold over. Repeat the pattern for the whole sequence.
When finished unravel and read- if it is grammatically correct then in a surreal universe you should be able to act it out!
Do you recognise all of these
and how to use them...?
Punctuation!
Remember to add:
adjectives
adverbs
strong verbs
phrases that add detail (the 5 senses)
Seepy bong drombles fellet mony tazzers
?????
?????
What do the drombles
do to the tazzers?
What are the drombles like?
How could you describe the tazzers?
Commas
,
Lists...
Before you open
direct speech...
To insert extra detail into a sentence
(an embedded clause)...
Commas are used to
separate items in a list.
Before some connectives
(always before 'but')
After an adverbial start
At the zoo there were lions
,

tigers
,
zebras and penguins
Comma
Comma
NO COMMA
In the cage was a
dangerous, beautiful tiger.
comma
adjective
adjective
noun
no comma
Write a short shopping list of 5 items (they can be as bizarre or normal as you like.)
Pick one item and describe it with more than one adjective
She said, "Aww, look
at that polar bear!"
comma
direct speech
final punctuation inside
the direct speech
capital letter
REMEMBER:
When writing, you need to start on a new line for every new speaker. E.g
"That polar bear is the cutest thing I have ever seen,' said Gemma.
"It's also probably the deadliest,' replied Sam.
!
.
,
()
'
?
;
:
-
small, but important...
New line
The penguins waddled towards me.
Simple sentence:
What if I want to add more detail into the middle? Such as what they looked like?
who were small and cute,
waddled towards me
The penguins,
Why do we need punctuation ?
Is this a dagger which I see before me,
The handle toward my hand? Come, let me clutch thee.
I have thee not, and yet I see thee still.
Art thou not, fatal vision, sensible
To feeling as to sight? Or art thou but
A dagger of the mind, a false creation,
Proceeding from the heat-oppressèd brain?
I see thee yet, in form as palpable
As this which now I draw.
Thou marshall'st me the way that I was going;
And such an instrument I was to use.
Mine eyes are made the fools o' the other senses,
Or else worth all the rest; I see thee still,
And on thy blade and dudgeon gouts of blood,
Which was not so before. There's no such thing:
It is the bloody business which informs
Thus to mine eyes....etc etc
—Act II, sc. i
Is this a dagger which I see before me the handle toward my hand come let me clutch thee I have thee not and yet I see thee still art thou not fatal vision sensible to feeling as to sight or art thou but a dagger of the mind a false creation proceeding from the heat-oppressèd brain I see thee yet in form as palpable as this which now I draw thou marshall'st me the way that I was going and such an instrument I was to use mine eyes are made the fools o' the other senses or else worth all the rest I see thee still and on thy blade and dudgeon gouts of blood which was not so before there's no such thing it is the bloody business which informs thus to mine eyes now o'er the one half world nature seems dead and wicked dreams abuse the curtain'd sleep; witchcraft celebrates pale Hecate's offerings and wither'd Murder alarum'd by his sentinel, the wolf whose howl's his watch thus with his stealthy pace with Tarquin's ravishing strides towards his design moves like a ghost thou sure and firm-set earth hear not my steps which way they walk for fear thy very stones prate of my whereabout and take the present horror from the time which now suits with it whiles I threat he lives words to the heat of deeds too cold breath gives.
—Act II, sc. i
Have a go at reading this- remember, if there is no punctuation you cannot pause or take a breath. See how long you last...
Shakespeare scrambled
Punctuation is vital if you want your writing to make sense. There are certain rules writers must follow which ensure that the reader can interpret the mood, pace and tone of the text. Have a go again and see if it makes more sense...
Continue this dialogue for 5 lines...
3.Go get him doctors!
Spark
Have a go at playing with meaning with these sentences by adding commas in different places...
1.Slow children crossing.
2. Look at that huge hot dog!
4.After we left Grandma Dad
and I went to the cinema.


5.The student said the teacher is crazy.
So commas can play a
key role in changing the
meaning of a sentence.
But there are also 5 simple
rules you can follow to ensure
you always get them in the
right place...
1. The wind,________________________, blew through the abandoned house.

2. The old man,____________________, slowly opened his front door.

3. I walked home,______________.

4. ________________________, the little girl burst into tears.

5. The sun, ________________________, shone into my bedroom window.

6. The car,________________ , struggled up the hill.
You can also add additional information at the beginning of the sentence and mark it off with a comma:
Looking small and cute, the penguins waddled towards me.
Varying your sentences in this way is one way to make your writing rich and varied.
Have a go at adding additional detail to the following sentences either within the commas or at the beginning...
Remember what an adverb is?
Loudly
Reluctantly
Repeatedly
Roughly
Rudely
Sadly
Seriously
Softly
Suddenly
Tenderly
Violently
Quietly
Intriguingly
Suspiciously
Now pick 3 and start a sentence with them, remember, a comma after the adverb.
E.g Suddenly, the hunter appeared from nowhere
Remember this rule only applies if you BEGIN a sentence with an adverb.
(This rule also applies if you begin your sentence with 'however')
If you are using any of these connectives mid sentence, they should usually have a comma IN FRONT of them.
e.g. I really love commas, likewise semi-colons are pretty cool.
Polar bears are cute, but they are also very deadly.
(The ones in this column normally begin a sentence so don't worry so much about these)
Every word has a grammatical role to play and can be labeled as a part of speech (eg. noun, preposition, adjective etc.)
Every word follows a set of rules in both spoken and written language. For example we always put the adjective before the thing we are describing. (a black cat) but in French they do it the other way around! (un chat noir)
Which is why even when given a nonsense sentence you can try and work out what it means because you understand the pattern of words.
L.O: To understand and recognise the parts of speech and how to use them to enhance our writing
L.O: To understand the correct use of commas.
PARTS OF SPEECH POEM
Incorrect use of commas
A comma has been used incorrectly to join two sentences which each make sense on their own.


Nothing has been used to join two sentences which each make sense on their own.


Part of a sentence that does not make sense on its own but is used as a complete sentence.
I entered the lifeboat I saw the same woman.
If each part makes sense by itself, then each part is a sentence in its own right which needs linking with either a connective, or with stronger punctuation than a comma, e.g. a full stop, or a semi-colon.
I looked outside, I saw an iceberg.
comma splice
run-on
when
but
and
.
;
Comma splice
A run-on or fused sentence

Sentence fragment
x
x
x

I sprinted out on to the deck. It was nearly full.
Solution Number 1
I sprinted out on to the deck, it was nearly full.
Correcting comma splices and run-ons
I sprinted out on to the deck and it was nearly full.

I sprinted out on to the deck but it was nearly full.

I sprinted out on to the deck and saw that it was nearly full.
Solution Number 2
I sprinted out on to the deck, it was nearly full.
I was serving drinks to the passengers the Captain called me over for a glass of wine, a loud thud echoed round the room.
Look at the sentences and note whether they are fine or spliced
Use a full stop and make two separate sentences:
Correcting comma splices and run-ons
solution
Number 2
Use a connective:

I sprinted out on to the deck; it was nearly full.
I sprinted out on to the deck, it was nearly full.
Solution Number 3
Correcting comma splices and run-ons
Use a semi colon which is stronger than a comma:
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