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Age of Change and Revolutions

Spanish Conquest of the Americas through Napoleon

Joyce Pevler

on 7 February 2014

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Transcript of Age of Change and Revolutions

Cities and Crops
The Americas
Obj. 5.1, 5.2, 5.3
Focus Question #33:
Complete Olmec Reading & Questions
Portugal led the way in exploration . . .
Columbus convinces Spain to sail west
"Finds" West Indies
Trouble brewing -- Pope steps in
Olmecs: The earliest American civilization along
Mexico’s Gulf Coast
This civilization arose in 1500 B.C. and influenced a wide area through trade
They invented a calendar and wrote with hieroglyphs
Civilization Arises with Olmecs
Olmec Head:
8' tall, 1500-300 BCE
Top: Nobles and Priests
Middle: Craftsmen, Traders, and Warriors
Bottom: Farmers, Other workers, and Slaves
Believed their priests could talk to the gods -- priests had incredible power
Priests decided nearly everything in the Maya daily life
Decided when to plant, when & whom people could marry, and whom to sacrifice.
At the heart of nearly all activities
Blood Sacrifice -- to appease the gods & ask for favors
Piercing of the skin so it bleeds
Preferred areas: Ears, Lips, Cheeks, Genitals
900CE- Mayas left cities &

NO ONE knows where they went
obsidian blades
stingray spikes
shark teeth
Capital of the Aztec Empire
Controlled VAST amounts of Central & Southern Mexico -- conquered neighbors
Braver the captive, the more nourishing the sacrifice
Human Sacrifice
Gods need: living hearts of sacrificed captives
Sacrifices - from population & conquered enemies
Aztec Crime & Punishment
Drunkenness =
1st Offense: Head Shaved, House Destroyed
2nd Offense: Death
Handling Stolen Property
Major Theft
Minor Theft
Treason =
Loss of property
Destruction of land
Children sold into slavery
Cutting down a Live tree
Sold into Slavery
Spanish explorers scout the Americas
Return with stories of gold and riches

Attracted by the promise of wealth and with religious zeal, many adventures will follow the original explorers.
Christopher Columbus
Vasco de Balboa
Ferdinand Magellan
Amerigo Vespucci
1519: Hernan Cortes lands with
600men, 16 horses, and a few canon
Plus they are in armor & pale-skinned
Heads inland
Aided by Malinche (a native women), as interpreter
Spanish Conquest
Aztec Empire Leader - Emperor Montezuma
Sends Cortes gifts of gold & silver

Cortes progresses further inland
With the Spanish at the city gates . . .

Montezuma welcomes Cortes into the city.
Spanish wear out their welcome.
Aztecs kick the Spanish out.

Problem: Montezuma dies in the fighting.
Spanish with native allies mounts an attack.
Spanish capture Tenochtitlán.

Tenochtitlán is demolished by the Spanish.
Mexico City will be built by the Spanish on top of the ruins.
Cortes conquers the Aztecs in Mesoamerica
Nazca Lines
Located in the Plains of Nazca, Peru
No one knows who had built them or why
First spotted when commercial airlines began flying across the Peruvian desert in the 1920's.
Passengers reported seeing 'primitive landing strips' on the ground below
300 figures made of straight lines, geometric shapes most clearly visible from the air
Some are over 6 MILES in length
Powerful empire in South America
Led by "The Inca"
Not popular with conquered peoples
In the Andes Mountains
Builds Road System that rivals Rome's
To travel through mountains -- build suspension bridges out of grasses & wood
Machu Picchu
Only surviving Inca settlement
Modern-day Peru
Spanish Arrive
Francisco Pizarro
Inspired by success of Cortes
1532: Goes after Inca Empire
Gains allies from natives
Got lucky -- Inca in a civil war
Two brothers fighting for control
Inca Warfare
Smallpox outbreak
Pizarro arrives
Spanish capture Atahualpa (Inca emperor) and kill thousands
168 Men, 27 Horses, & 1 Cannon
Spanish kill him anyway.
Then DESTROY Inca Empire
Spanish demand ranson
for Atahualpa's release.

Incas pay.
A few HUNDRED Spaniards conquered MILLIONS in the Americas
1. Superior military technology
(horses, cannons, muskets, and armor)
2. Division and discontent among natives
(Aztec and Inca Empires ruled other people)
3. Disease brought by Europeans
(killed more natives than Spanish guns)
4. Native Americans believed the disasters marked the end of the world
(were they right?)
Reasons for Victory
Spanish Empire in the Americas
Sugar Becomes King
Became very

Plantation system
Large numbers

of workers needed

forced to work the land

– resisters hunted and killed
Encomienda system developed
Granted by Spanish monarchs

to demand labor

or tribute from natives
Was as important as gaining land
Church leaders served as royal officials
Forcibly imposed Spanish culture
Bartholomew de las Casas
Priest & former conquistador
Father accompanied Columbus on 2nd voyage
Publicly criticized the ruthlessness with which Columbus & successors treated the Amerindians
Spanish Colonial Social Structure
Peninsulares: Born in Spain
Children of Peninsulares
Spanish & African Mix
Spanish & Native Mix
African Slaves
His Answer . . .

1. Native populations

ravaged by disease.
2. Influx of gold, and especially silver, into Europe created an inflationary economic climate.
3. New products introduced across the continents

[“Columbian Exchange”]
4. Deepened

colonial rivalries.
Impact of European Expansion
1. How was religion practiced by the Maya?
2. How was religion practiced by the Aztec?
3. What is the remaining feature of the Nazca?
4. Describe one advancement of the Inca.
5. What was one reason for Spanish victory & why was it important?
6. What was one impact of European expansion in the Americas?
On a separate piece of paper & TURN IN.
Columbian Exchange & Slave Trade
Focus Question #22:
Draw a Bubble Map listing what you already know about the slave trade
Commerical Revolution
Population growth = more consumers

Capitalism – investment of money to make profit
People sought new ways to make money

Funded countless economic activities
Idea that nation must export more goods than it imports

Colonies existed for benefit of mother country
Provided raw materials
Market for goods produced in mother country
Colonists could not trade with anyone other than the mother country
New Industries
Cloth production
Book trade
New Consumer Goods

Columbian Exchange
Occurred after 1492
Enormous widespread exchange between Europe, Africa, and the Americas.
Plants, animals, foods, polulations, diseases, and ideas
One of the most significant events in the history of
world ecology, agriculture, and culture.
Whooping Cough
Wheat, Oats, Barley
Citrus Fruits
Coffee Beans
Maize (Corn)
Sweet Potato
Old World "Gifts"
New World Gifts
The Americas
The Columbian Exchange
European Transformation:
Improved diet
Increased wealth
Rise of global empires
Impact of the Exchange
American-Indian Transformation:
Disease: 1492 to 1600 - ~90% died
Need for workers
Native populations reduced by disease
Some ran away

High death rate
1 ton sugar = 1 human life
Sugar is King

Existed in Africa before Europeans
1518: Portuguese 1st to purchase African slaves
Atlantic Slave Trade
Began in 1500s to fill Spain’s need for labor in Americas
Lasted 300 years
Huge and profitable business
About 9.5 million Africans imported to the Americas
Four Advantages to Using Africans
1. Immunity to European diseases

2. Farming experience

3. Less likely to escape

4. Skin color
Had been exposed for decades

Could be trained in platation work

Did not know the territory of new land

Easier to catch if escaped
Slave Trade
African rulers and traders seized captives in the interior and brought them to coastal trading posts and fortresses
An Englishman Tastes the Sweat of an Africa, 1725
1. Africans for sale. 3. Englishman performing lick test
2. African being examined 4. Iron slave marker on slave
Slave Holding Area
Door of No Return
Olaudah Equiano, an African captured as a boy who later wrote an autobiography, recalled . . .

"When I looked round the ship too and saw a large furnace of copper boiling, and a mulititude of black people of every description chained together, every one of their countenances expressing dejection and sorrow, I no longer doubted of my fate and quite overpowered with horror and anguish, I fell motionless on the deck and fainted. . . . I asked if we were not to be eaten by those white men with horrible looks, red faces and long hair?"
Leaving Africa
The Middle Passage
Trip from Africa to Americas
10 to 16 million Africans transported between 1500 & 1900
Slave ships were “floating coffins”
1 in 5 died
The Middle Passage
At least 2 million Africans died during Middle Passage
Middle Passage took ~ 7 weeks
Men chained together

1 in 5 died

Most serious danger was dehydration
Coffin Position Below Deck
"A woman was dejected from the moment she came on board, and refused both food and medicine; being asked by the interpreter what she wanted, she replied ‘nothing but to die’, and she did die".
Suicide Prevalent
Revolts – 1 in every 10 voyages
African Captives Thrown Overboard
What do you see?
'It was not atypical to see a massive school of sharks darting in and out of the wake of the ships filled with human cargo plying the Atlantic. For miles they followed the battered and moldy vessels, waiting to attack the disease-ravaged black bodies that were periodically tossed into the ocean...
'If the Atlantic were to dry up, it would reveal a scattered pathway of human bones, African bones marking the various routes of the Middle Passage.'
For every 100 slaves who reached the New World, 40 died in Africa or during the Middle Passage
In The

Slaves accused of insubordination or of eating more than their allotment of food
Iron Muzzle
1666-1776: Slaves imported only by the English for the English, French and Spanish colonies: 
3 million (250,000 died on the voyage).
1680-1786: Slaves imported for the English colonies in America: 
,130,000 (Jamaica alone absorbed 610,000).
1716-1756: Average annual number of slaves imported for the American colonies:
70,000, with a total of 3.5 million.
1752-1762: Jamaica alone imported 71,115 slaves.
1759-1762: Guadeloupe alone imported 40,000 slaves.
1776-1800: A yearly average of 74,000 slaves were imported for the American colonies,
or a total of 1,850,000; this yearly average was divided up as follows:
English, 38,000; French, 20,000; Portuguese, 10,000; Dutch, 4,000; Danes, 2,000.
Slave Totals
The slave trade caused decline in some areas and growth in others.
Small states disappeared forever do to the loss of the younger generation.
New states arose that depended on the slave trade for survival.
Consequences of the Slave Trade
It is estimated that 10-15 million Africans reached the Americas in bondage and another 2-6 million died in transit.
Columbian Exchange Assessment
1. What is the Columbian Exchange?

2. Why would the Columbian Exchange be considered an unintentional use of bio-terrorism?

3. Describe the Triangluar Trade (where & what)

4. Describe the Middle Passage.
Triangular Trade
1st Leg: Europe to Africa
2nd Leg: Africa to the Americas
3rd Leg: Americas to Europe
Europe to Africa: Finished Goods
Africa to Americas: Slaves
Americas to Europe: Raw Materials
Triangular Trade Breakdown
Europeans bring new diseases -- the native populations have NO IMMUNITY.

Disease will kill more natives than all other deaths combined -- reduces population by up to 90%
Death by disease will occur in all places of European contact with natives in the Americas.
Focus Question #23:
"God, who has given me so many Kingdoms to govern, has not given me a son fit to govern them." - Philip II of Spain

What does this quote have to say about what society felt toward women during this time period?
Absolutism - Spain
Obj. 4.2
Divine Right of Kings:

Ruler had complete authority over the government and lives of the people
Belief that kings are chosen by God
Power of these monarchs seen as
absolute -- all powerful
King Philip II
42-year reign
Wanted to expand Spanish influence & strengthen Catholic Church
Made Spain foremost power in Europe
- Due to silver & gold from Americas
Served as a:
Tomb for members of royal family
15 cloisters
16 courts
14 entrance halls
13 oratory
300 cells
86 stairways
9 towers
9 pipe organs
232 chorus books
73 statues
More than 1,600 scenes
11 cisterns
88 fountains
2,673 windows
1,200 doors
4,700 manuscripts
--many illuminated
40,000 printed books.
Library Inside Monastery
Philip's Chapel
Religious unity enforced
Against anyone thought to be a heretic
Consisted of torture and execution
Established by Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain
Last Inquisition was in 1834
The Rack
Coffin Torture
Judas Cradle
Revolt in Netherlands
Fight against Protestants
Started with riots against Inquisition
Fought for decades
Richest part of empire
Today are Belgium, Netherlands, Luxembourg
Gained official independence in 1648
Fighting England
Elizabeth I - Queen of England
Philip's sister-in-law
Was Protestant
Spain saw her as illegitimate

Encouraged British sea captains to plunder Spanish ships- privateers
Supported the Dutch against Spain
- Seen as pirates by Spain
1588: Philip prepared an invasion force
Armada - fleet of ships
More than 130 ships and 20,000 men
Spanish confident of victory
Prediction of one Spanish commander:
“God will surely arrange matters so that we can grapple and board them, either by sending some strange freak of weather or, more likely, just by depriving the English of their wits.”
Defeat of the Armada is the beginning of the end for Spanish power.
Decimates Spanish fleet.
Spain limps home in defeat
Golden Age
"Siglo de oro"
Between 1550 to 1650
Brilliance in art and literature
Philip II patron of arts
El Greco
Miguel de Cervantes

Lack of strong leadership
Economic problems
Costly overseas wars
Heavily taxed middle class
Expulsion of Muslims & Jews deprived country of skilled artisans and merchants
Spain's Decline
1600s and 1700s: Dutch, English, and French surpass Spanish naval power
Absolutism Assessment
1. What is the Divine Right of Kings?

2. Why did Philip II target England?
1. What is the Divine Right of Kings?

2. Why did Philip II target England?
Absolutism Assessment
The belief that kings are chosen by God and therefore all powerful

England was:
Ruled by Queen whom he saw as ineffective
England and Parliament
The Stuarts
1603: Elizabeth dies without a direct heir
She never married and had no children
The throne passed to her relatives the Stuarts,
the ruling family of Scotland.
The Royal Challenge
The first Stuart monarch, James I, agreed to rule according to English laws and customs.
Repeatedly clashes with Parliament over money and foreign policy.
Lavish court
Dissenters -- Protestants who differ with the Church of England.
Puritans want to "purify" church
James I orders new translation of the Bible
1611: the King James version of the Bible appeared.
1625: James dies
Charles I (his son) inherits throne
1628: Charles needs money
Parliament will not vote on funds until Charles signs the Petition of Right
No imprisonment without due cause.
No taxes without the consent of Parliament.
No soldiers in private homes
No martial law in peacetime.
Signs Petition & sends Parliament home
Next 11 years -- ignores Petition
Scots revolt -- needs money
Asks Parliament for money -- NOW Parliament revolts
The English Civil War
The civil war lasts from 1642 to 1649.
Cavaliers and Roundheads
Cavaliers: supporters of Charles – wealthy nobles.
Roundheads: supporters of Parliament – country gentry, town-dwelling manufacturers, and Puritan clergy.
Characterized by their fashionable plumed hats and long hair.
Characterized by their close cut hair.
At first the Royalists (Cavaliers) win.
After a series of decisive battles, the Cavaliers are defeated by the Roundheads.
When did you last see your Father?
Royalist family is captured by the Parliamentarians
and the son is questioned about his father’s whereabouts.
Execution of a King
Parliament set up a court to put the king on trial.
Court condemns Charles to death.
In January 1649, Charles I is beheaded
The Parliamentary forces showed that in England, no ruler could claim absolute power and ignore the rule of law.

Absolutism FAILS in England.
For the first time a monarch had been tried and executed by his own people.
The Commonwealth
After the execution the House of Commons abolished the monarchy, the House of Lords, and the official Church of England.

Declared England a republic, known as the Commonwealth.
Puritan Society
Puritan preachers tried to root out godlessness and impose a “rule a saints.”
Parliament enacted a series of laws to make sure that Sunday was only for religious observance.
Anyone over the age of 14 could be fined for “profaning the Lord’s Day.”
Theaters were closed and lewd dancing, gambling, and taverns were frowned upon.
Puritans encouraged education for all people so that they could read the Bible.
Also pushed for changes in marriages to increase fidelity --– they encouraged marriages based on love.
Religious freedom for Protestant groups was allowed and Jews were allowed back in England after 350 years of exile.
End of Commonwealth
1658: Oliver Cromwell dies
Soon after Puritans lose power.
The “kingless decade” ends with a return of the monarchy, but Puritan ideas about morality, equality, government, and education will endure.
From Restoration to Glorious Revolution
May 1660 cheering crowds welcome Charles II back to London.
Charles II is popular – reopened theaters and taverns.
Charles restored the official Church of England but tolerated other Protestants.
Secretly had Catholic sympathies.
1685: James II (Charles’s brother) inherited the throne.

Flaunted his Catholic faith and further angered subjects by suspending laws when it was convenient. Many feared he would restore the Roman Catholic Church.
New Clash with Parliament
1688: Parliament invited James’s Protestant daughter Mary and her husband William III of Orange to become rulers of England.
1688: William and Mary land with their army and James flees to France.

This bloodless overthrow of a king becomes known as the “Glorious Revolution.”
Before William and Mary can be crowned they had to accept several acts passed by Parliament in 1689 that became known as the English Bill of Rights.

The Bill of Rights ensure the superiority of Parliament over the monarchy.
English Bill of Rights
Monarch must summon Parliament regularly.
Monarch cannot interfere with Parliamentary debate or suspend laws.
Bars Roman Catholics from taking the throne.
Restates the traditional rights of English citizens.
Trial by jury
Abolished excessive fines, cruel or unjust punishment.
Affirmed habeas corpus.
Freedom of speech for Parliament
England & Parliament Assessment
1. What was different about the death of King Charles I?
2. Does Absolutism work in England, why or why not?
3. After the death of Oliver Cromwell, why does the Commonwealth end?
4. What is the significance of the English Bill of Rights?
Founding a New Nation
North America -- Colonized by 3 powers
Competing Claims in North America
English, French, and Dutch explorers searched North America for a Northwest Passage to Asia.
Looking for a northern route around the world that does not require them to sail through Spanish or Portuguese territory.
The French
1500s- French fishing ships were crossing the Atlantic each year to harvest cod off Newfoundland.
1524- Giovanni da Verrazzano explored New York Harbor.
1534- Jacques Cartier explored the St. Lawrence River.
1608- First permanent French settlement built by Samuel de Champlain in Quebec.
French explorers and fur traders travel inland aided by Native Americans.

France claimed the territory from Quebec to the Great Lakes and down the Mississippi River to Louisiana.

Farming was abandoned in favor of fur trapping and trading as the basis of the economy.
Population grew slowly – climate was harsh and few peasants were attracted to the area.
French forts, missions, and trading posts stretch through New France
yet the population remained small.
The English
1607: The first permanent English settlement was estalished at Jamestown, Virginia
English Arrive
A commerical venture
Settled by about 150 men
Women do not come for almost 20 years!!
Almost fails TWICE!
Life expectancy is 5 years
The early years are filled with disaster – many die of starvation and disease.
Survivors were aided by Native Americans.

The colony is now profitable.
Tobacco is the salvation of Jamestown
1620s: Women arrive
1620: Pilgrims land at Plymouth, Massachusetts
Were seeking religious freedom.
Signed the Mayflower Compact before disembarking from the ship.
The Pilgrims come as families – they bring women and children to start their colony.
Again many die at first.
Local Indians taught them how to grow corn and helped them survive in their new environment.
The Dutch
Dutch claim (now) New York
Fur trade with Iroquois
Dutch Major Settlement: New Amsterdam (Manhattan)
Henry Hudson explores
Hudson Bay
Hudson Strait
Hudson River
Do you see a PROBLEM??
Geographic region influences development of colony
Dutch will surrender their claims in North America.
English create 13 colonies
New Hampshire
Rhode Island
New York
New Jersey
North Carolina
South Carolina
Colonies are growing . . .
Colonies are prosperous & increase England's economy
Each has its own government
People have lots of freedom
PROBLEM: Colonists begin to identify with their colony more than with England
Colonists are British subjects and follow English law.
Mercantilism at Work
American raw materials bought by British at low prices

Materials to Britian for manufacture

Finished goods sold to colonists
1651: Britain passes the Naviagation Act.
Colonists MUST sell their most profitable items to England ONLY
(French & Dutch goods HIGHLY taxed)
The Crown of England
1688: William & Mary crowned
Mary dies then William dies -- no children
Her sister takes throne

1714: Queen Anne dies -- no children
George I becomes King of England
From Lower Saxony (Germany)
Great-grandson of James I of England
56 Closer relatives & more prominent choices were turned down.
1727: King George II inherits

1760: George II has an aneurysm in bathroom.
Is carried to bed and dies.
Grandson inherits.
1760: George III crowned king.
First Hanoverian king to be born in England AND speak English

Has 15 children: 9 boys, 6 girls

Buys Buckingham House as a family retreat
George III develops a progressive mental illness -- unable to perform his duties

His son will act in his name from 1811 until George III's death in 1820
Fight for the Americas
1754-1763: French & Indian War is fought in North America

French and Indians VERSUS American colonists
Part of Seven Years' War in Europe
France has more territory -- England has more people
French & Indian War fought over control of the Ohio River Valley
New agriculutural lands and the fur trade
Britain & the colonies defeat the French
Claim French territory
BUT France gave away alot of territory
1762: Treaty of Fountainbleau signed

France secretly ceded Lousiana (Territory) and New Orleans to Spain
Under Treaty of Paris (1763):
East of Mississippi to England;
West of Mississippi to France
Royal Proclamation 1763: Established new western boundary -- Appalachian Mountains

1. Colonists fought war for new territory.
Told to stop westward expansion

2. Britain has HUGE debt from war (133 million pounds)
Britain sent 20,000 troops to colonies to fight
Parliament's Solution --

TAXES!!! From the colonies!
A whole group of people who DO NOT pay taxes to England!
1765: Parliament passes the Stamp Act
Tax must be paid for an official stamp on wills, deeds, newspapers, playing cards, and other printed material
Colonists are outraged!
Taxes to England??
They pay taxes at "home"
Argued tax violated natural rights
Sons of Liberty formed to protest the act and enforce a boycott of British goods.
Sons of Liberty: A secret society of American patriots who spoke out against the British
1765: Stamp Act Congress meets
First time representatives of most colonies meet
Legal Question:
Does Parliament with no colonial representatives
have the right to tax the colonies???
Under British custom and the British constitution ONLY Colonial Assemblies have the right to tax the colonies.
Accused government of
"taxation without representation"

Parliament declares that all British citizens
are "virtually" represented in Parliament.
Stamp Act
1766: Stamp Act Repealed
Tensions rising . . .
British soldiers sent to colonies as a "calming influence"
March 5, 1770: Boston Massacre
Colonists throw snowballs at British troops
Soldiers fire on crowd
5 dead, 6 wounded
Colonists create Committees of Correspondence -- to communicate British action throughout the colonies.
1773: East India Company -- ONLY company for tea purchases in colonies.
Would reduce price of tea
Would hurt colonial tea traders
Potential for other goods to be restricted
December 16, 1773: Boston Tea Party
About 150 Bostonian men board docked ships and dump 342 chests of tea overboard.
1774: Coersive Acts passed by Parliament -- colonists call them the Intolerable Acts
Closed Boston Harbor until tea is paid for
Suspended self-government in MA
Trials for colonists allowed to be moved into other colonies or even to Britian
Allowed soldiers to be quarted in private homes
GOAL: Isolate Massachusetts

RESULT: Unites Colonies
Problems Grow . . .
September 1774: First Continental Congress meets
Every colony but Gerogia send delegates
Members agree to boycott British goos
Britain sends more troops to colonies
April 19, 1775: Lexington & Concord
700 British troops march from Boston

Heading to Lexington -- to arrest colonial
leaders & seize ammunition

Colonists signal militia

70"Minutemen" face Brtish
Someone fires a shot . . . fighting breaks out
8 colonists die

British march to Concord . . . fighting breaks out
British retreat to Boston -- shot at most of way

British: 73 Dead, 174 Wounded, 26 Missing
Colonists: 49 Dead, 39 Wounded
"Shot heard 'round the world"

The War for Independence has begun
"The resolution for independency agreed to July 2, 1776"
Colonies claim Independence
July 4, 1776: Declaration of Independence signed
Written by Thomas Jefferson
Based on ideas of Locke & the Enlightenment
Statement of ideals & list of grievances against King George III
Reasons for Colonists' Success:
Motivation: Defending the homeland
Overconfident British make mistakes
Time on the side of colonists
France sends troops to help colonists
Check Your Understanding:
3. What were the three European powers in North America (following the Dutch retreat)?

4. Who fought in the French and Indian War (the sides) and what was the result?

5. What does "no taxation without representation" mean?

6. Why were the colonists so resistant to British taxation?
Scientific Revolution & the Enlightenment
The Scientific Revolution
A new way of thinking about the natural world.

Based on careful observation and documentation.

Researchers will question accepted beliefs.

The Medieval View
Earth is center of universe: geocentric theory

First with idea: Aristotle, Greek philosopher
Then expanded: Ptolemy, Greek astronomer

Ptolemy’s views were supported by the Church

God placed earth at the center of the universe because it is special
Mid 1500s, scholars began challenging the wisdom of the ancients (and the Church)
Challenges were advanced by the Age of Exploration
Navigators needed new tools, better maps and charts.
New lands and people brought out new ideas
New evidence contradicted the knowledge of the ancients.
New Model of the Universe
Most experts and Church leaders rejected the theory of Copernicus
Nicolaus Copernicus: Propsed sun was the center of the universe (heliocentric theory)
Brahe set up an observatory.
Watched and documented the movement of the stars and planets for years.
Kepler, Brahe’s assistant, used Brahe’s data to support Copernicus’ sun-centered universe.

The Church’s problem with these scientific researchers: People will begin to question other Church teachings since they have been proved wrong once.
Galileo studied the sky.
He confirmed work of Copernicus

The Church condemned Galileo’s work.
1633: He was tried before the Inquisition.

Galileo recanted his “heresies” before the court under threat of death.

1992- 359 years later, The Catholic Church acknowledged that Galileo was right.
Required scientists to collect and accurately measure data.
Propose a logical conclusion.
Test the hypothesis.

Scientific Method
The Scientific Method was a revolution in thought.
Knowledge is based on tested experiments -- not on what sounds good to the Church or the king.
Francis Bacon: Stressed observation & experimentation
Rene Descartes: Emphasized human reasoning
I think, therefore I am
Isaac Newton: Laws of motion and mechanics.
He published the law of gravity.
Newton also developed calculus
Scientific Revolution Spreads
Scientific Instruments (know two)
1590: Microscope
1643: Mercury barometer
1640s: Bacteria and red blood cells observed under microscope
1714: Gabriel Fahrenheit developed first thermometer to use mercury in glass (freezing point of water 32°
1742: Anders Celsius created a mercury thermometer with 0° freezing point.
Andreas Vesalius dissected human corpses, published his observations, and proved Galen wrong.

1700s: Vaccine for smallpox

Other discoveries: ointment to prevent infection, stitches for wounds, blood circulation is understood.
Medicine & the Human Body
Middle Ages knowledge based on work of Galen -- who had NEVER studied the inside of the human body. He dissected pigs and other animals.
Humans used reason to discover laws of the universe – so they should be able to use reason to define natural laws.

Natural laws -- Laws that govern human nature.
Scientific Revolution of the 1500s & 1600s transformed the way people in Europe looked at the world.

Scientific successes convinced educated Europeans of the power of human reason.
Progress & Reason
Enlightenment thinkers insisted that through reason every social, political, and economic problem could be solved.
Reformers set out to study human behavior and solve the problems of society.
This “revolution” in thinking is known as the Enlightenment.
Two Views on Government
1600s: Two English thinkers put out ideas that were to become key to the Enlightenment.
Both lived through the English Civil War – but they come to different conclusions about government and human nature.
People entered into a
social contract
where they gave up their natural unruly state for an organized society.

Favored absolute monarchy -- only a powerful government could ensure an orderly society.
Thomas Hobbes
People: Naturally cruel, greedy, and selfish

If not controlled people will fight, rob, and
oppress one another.
New Idea:
John Locke
Governments were formed to protect natural rights – the best kind had limited power and was accepted by all citizens.
People: Basically reasonable
and moral
Believed in natural rights --
rights that belong to all humans from birth.
Include: Right to life, liberty, & property
Locke’s Radical Idea: Government is obligated to the people it governs.

If a government fails its obligations or violates people’s natural rights, the people have the right to overthrow the government.

3. Whose ideas are better -- Hobbes or Locke? Defend your choice.
The Philosophes
Advocate Reason
Philosophes -- French thinkers of the Enlightenment
Core Beliefs:




Truth could be discovered through reason

What was natural was good & reasonable

Seek well-being on earth

Society & human should improve

Want the liberties granted to the English
Most famous quote: “I do not agree with a word you say but will defend to the death your right to say it.”
Most famous of the philosophes
Battled inequality, injustice, and
superstition in his writings
Hated: slave trade &
religious prejudice
Offended the French government and the Catholic Church.

Was imprisoned and forced into exile.
Each branch of government should serve as check on the other two.

Keeps anyone from gaining total control.
Studied governments
ancient & modern
Conclusion: Best way to protect liberty
was with a separation of powers
Laws exist to preserve
social order

Criticized abuses of justice:
Irregular proceedings
Arbitrary or cruel punishments
Government should seek the greatest
good for the greatest number of people
Speedy trial of accused
Abolish death penalty
Punishment should fit the crime
New Ideas:
Most controversial
Titles of nobility should be abolished
Does not apply to women -- they had their role in society.
People were basically good.

Government placed too many
limitations on people's behavior
Placed to good of the community
above the rights of the individual.
Argued that all people were equal.
The Encyclopedia
Denis Diderot produced a
28-volume Encyclopedia.
17 volumes of text
11 volumes of engravings
French government & the Church
both attempt to suppress publication
of L'Encyclopdia.
The government:
Resisted anything that would
enable all people to be educated.

The Church: Deemed many articles
"unfit" for reading. It was filth
Designed as a "one-stop resource"
for all knowledge of the time.
Subjects: Arts, sciences, crafts . . .

No subject to large or too small.
Diderot upset the guilds -- attempted to learn
their secrets and give them to the masses.
He is not the only author.
Recruited the leading authorities
to write articles on their subjects.
Brick Making
18th Century Agriculture in France
Shoe Making
Wagon Wheel Making
Use of a
Diderot will work for
25 years to complete
publication of the
He fights the crown and the Church, endures
prison censorship, exile, and excommunication.
The Challenge
of New Ideas
The Role of Women
"Free & equal" did NOT apply to women.

The natural rights of women were limited to home and family.
Education for girls: Limited to the "arts of womanhood"

Some reformers claimed that if girls were given the same education they were perform as well as the boys.
Government & church authorities think they have a sacred duty to maintin the old way.

Both groups will ban and burn books.
Writers will publish under fake names to protect their identities -- keep them out of prison.
Legacy of the Enlightenment
Philosophes were thinkers -- not men of action they put out ideas that lead to revolution.
Three Long-Term Effects
Belief in Progress

Secular Outlook

Importance of the Individual
France: The Reign of Louis XIV
1560s - 1590s: Religious Wars
Huguenots (Protestant Minority)
Catholics (Majority)

Worst Incident:
St. Bartholomew's Day Massacre

*Issued Edict of Nantes --
grants religious toleration to
*Built a royal bureaucracy and
reduced the influence of nobles.
Laid the foundation for
royal absolutism
*Henry IV
1589: Inherits throne
Huguenot prince
Converts to Catholicism
1610: Henry assassinated.
Louis XIII inherits at 9.

Nobles reassert power
At 15, Louis XIII takes control
Cardinal Richelieu appointed
chief adminstrator.

Works to limit power of nobles and the Huguenots.
Huguenot city walls destroyed
Nobles given high posts in court or the army.
1643: Louis XIII dies at 33
His son is 5 -- and now "king"
Louis XIV
Louis XIV, The Sun King
Assumes total control at 18

"L'eat, c'est moi" -- "I Am the State"
Firmly believed in divine right to rule.
The sun is the center of the universe so . . .
Took the sun as the symbol of his absolute power -- the Sun King is the center of the state.
72 year reign
Changes under Louis XIV
Strengthens the state:
expanded bureaucracy
appointed intendants to collect taxes and administer justice
Bureaucrats & intendants were
wealthy "middle class" men --
NOT nobles.
French army will become the
strongest in Europe.
Up to 300,000 soldiers were paid, trained, fed, and supplied.

Highly disciplined

Enforced Louis's policies in France and foreign holdings.
France is the wealthiest state, but
often short of cash (broke).
Often: Not enough income to pay for Louis's
court and his foreign wars.
Versailles, Symbol of Royal Power
Turned a royal hunting lodge into the Palace of Versailles.
No expense was spared -- wanted the most magnificent building in Europe.
Became the perfect symbol of the Sun King's wealth & power.

Was Louis's home & seat of power
Housed at least 10,000 people (nobles & servants)
Located 11 miles southwest of Paris -- moved the heart of power OUT of the city.
Four major stages of construction
1st building campaign: Alterations to the château and the gardens to accommodate 600 guests.
The Gardens
The Water Walk
Grove of the Three Fountains
Enclelade Grove
Outdoor Ballroom
Dragon Fountain
The Royal Apartments
Ambassador's Staircase
Dauphine's Bedroom
Dauphin's Bedroom
Apollo Salon
2nd building campaign: The original structure was fully enclosed so that the royal apartments could be built.
Grand Appartement de la Reine
Queen's Bedchamber
Grand Appartement du Roi
King's Bedchamber
3rd building campaign: major additions –
the Hall of Mirrors and the Orangery
4th building campaign: Mainly composed of construction of the Royal Chapel
The Holy Ghost Descending on the Apostles
At Court with Louis XIV
Nobles live at Versailles.
Traditional duties handled by intendants.
Major ritual: en levée – high ranking nobles competed for the honor of assisting Louis in getting out of bed and dressed for the day (only 4 were chosen).
Daily: Elaborate ceremonies that
emphasized the important of Louis XIV
Success & Failures
Louis XIV rules for 72 years.
Versailles was the center of the arts and culture in Europe during Louis's reign.
Purpose of art: Glorify the king
and promote values that
supported absolute rule.
Apollo Fountain
Wars of Louis XIV
Poured vast resources into wars to expand French borders.
Gained territory at first.
Later wars were disastrous -- foreign rulers joined forces (alliances) to check French ambition.
Alliances were made against France
Goal: a balance of power – a distribution of military and economic power that would prevent any one country dominating Europe.
Persecution of the Huguenots
Huguenots were a threat to religious and political unity.
Threat to absolute power.
1685: Revoked Edict of Nantes
This action will backfire.
Over 100,000 Huguenots leave France
Huguenots were wealthy and hard-working.
BUT -- years of warfare drained the treasury and the earlier prosperity will evaporate due to bad harvests, heavy taxes, and other problems.
1715: Louis dies.
5 year-old great-grandson inherits the throne as Louis XV.
At Louis's death France is the strongest state in Europe.
August 24, 1572:

Wedding between Catholic and Huguenot nobles.

Violence occurs; 3,000 Huguenots are slaughtered.

Thousands more killed in the next few days.
1 What was the impact of the Scientific Revolution on the authority of the Catholic Church?

2. What is the basis for the Scientific Revolution?
Check your Understanding . . .
Were they right???
4. What was the Enlightenment?

5. What ideas were borrowed from the Enlightenment in the creation of our government?

6. Why was L'Encyclopedia a ground-breaking enterprise?

7. How were women effected by the Enlightenment?
Check your Understanding . . .
Check Your Understanding . . .
1. What are three things on the "Dauphin's Map" that are not seen on maps today? Why were these included?

2. What was the raw material gathered in New France?
The Result
American rebels win!!
Upstart colonists defeat the British.
Form a new government that we enjoy today.
Most Famous:
Sir Francis Drake
Muslim civilization spread through much of West Africa
West African Kingdoms
Rain Forests
Rivers contain rapids and cataracts (waterfalls)
Mountainous with few good natural harbors
Barriers to Movement
Regulation of economy achieved by:
controlling trade routes
law stated that only king could own gold nuggets - kept inflation down
laws to ensure fair trade helped trade to thrive
Trade of West Africa
Second largest continent

Africa’s Size
11,700,000 sq. mi.
10% of the world’s population.
2 ½ times the size of the U. S.
Early Africans adapt to these varied environments
Different survival skills develop which leads to unique ways of life
Africans create diverse cultures as they adapt
Land of Contrasting geography
Trade played an important role in linking and strengthening the kingdoms of West Africa
Rulers built powerful kingdoms by gaining control of key trade routes and defeating their enemies
Top TWO items of trade:
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