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Literary Terms

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by

Mark Barkowski

on 15 November 2016

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Transcript of Literary Terms

What is Conflict?
Conflict is defined as a struggle between two forces.
vs.
External Conflict
Struggle with an outside force
Another character
Nature
Society
Force (Supernatural)
Rick's showdown with Negan in
The Walking Dead
is an example of man vs. man conflict.
Internal Conflict
Comes within the mind of a character
Feelings, emotions, decisions
Examples of Irony
Types of Irony
The audience knows that Juliet is only faking her death, but Romeo does not.
A grieving widow says at her husband's funeral: "He would have loved to be here for this."
Dramatic -
When the reader knows something (about a character, about the plot) that other characters do not know.
Situational -
When something occurs in a story that is totally opposite of what one would expect to happen.
Verbal - something that is said that is contrary to the literal meaning
(cc) photo by theaucitron on Flickr
(cc) photo by theaucitron on Flickr
- The theme is the central message of the story.
- Theme can also be ideas, topics, issues, or messages that are evident in the story.
- It applies to situations both inside and outside of the text.
As a reader, you sometimes notice that an object seems to mean more than it actually is, as in this example from The Bean Trees by Barbara Kingsolver:
…I bought a car, a ‘55 Volkswagon bug with no windows to speak of, and no back seat and no starter. But it was easy to push start without help once you got the hang of it, the wrong foot on the clutch and the other leg out the door, especially if you parked on a hill, which in that part of Kentucky you could hardly do anything but.

In this car I intended to drive out of Pittman County one day and never look back,
expect maybe for Mama.
The day I brought it home, she knew I was going to get away. She took one look and said,
“Well, if you’re going to have an old car you’re going to know how to drive an old car.” What she meant was how to handle anything that might come along.
What the car means to the narrator
What the mother thinks
SYMBOL
The narrator thinks that the car represents a ticket to freedom. However, the clue that the car stands for something else as well comes in the mother's comment: "What she meant was how to handle anything that might come along..." So the car also stands for the opportunity to have new experiences
Description
Definition
A symbol is a person, place, thing, or event used to stand for something abstract, such as an idea of emotion, in a literary work
Foreshadowing is a hint to the reader as to what may happen to a character or to the plot in the near future.
Contrast between what seems to be and what really is
mood
tone
refers to the atmosphere or feeling conveyed by a work
The mood of a work might be mysterious, joyous, gloomy, depressing, or peaceful.
refers to an author's attitude toward the subject, characters, or reader.
Tone can be described in such terms as formal, intimate, sympathetic, serious, or ironic.
from "The Sniper" by Liam O'Flaherty
He was eating a sandwich hungrily.
He had eaten nothing since morning.
He had been too excited to eat.

He finished the sandwich, and taking a flask of whiskey from his pocket, he took a short draught. Then he returned the flask to his pocket.
He paused for a moment,
considering whether he should risk a smoke. It was dangerous.
The flash might be seen in the darkness and there were enemies watching. He decided to take the risk.
The author's tone, or attitude toward the subject could be described as serious and the mood, the overall atmosphere, is tense.
Narrators
1st Person
3rd Person Omniscient
3rd Person Limited
Different
perspectives
Point of view is also known as the vantage point of the story.
It is the way we, the reader, receive information from the narrator.
There are three different types of point of view that are most common.

POINT OF VIEW
This narrator is a character in the story that uses “I” or “me.” He/she usually interacts with other characters.
- "disappears"

The audience experiences the narrative exactly the way the character is experiencing it.
- unreliable
This type of narrator is an outside observer who describes what is going on.

The narrator is "limited" because he/she can only tell the audience what they see and hear.
This type of narrator is also an outside observer, but has the ability to give the audience an “all knowing, all seeing” vantage point.
A feeling of excitement, curiosity, or uncertainty about what is going to happen next.
A theme of Willy Wonka and the Chocolate Factory can be "honesty is the best policy."

Foreshadowing is the “Oh, that’s why he did that” moment in the story.

Unfortunately, the reader doesn’t realize it is an example of foreshadowing until the moment has passed.

The writer's rule for foreshadowing is that if you introduce trouble in the beginning of a plot, someone has to be impacted by it at the end.
Verbal
Situational
Dramatic
Main Ideas
Central Information

Action
Development of Characters

A summary is a condensation of a passage that includes key points and essential information in order to better understand the original text.
IDIOM
a phrase which acts as a synonym for an idea/concept
dialect
not easily translated to another language

"She was green with envy."
-standardized conventional ideas about characters, setting, or plot.
"the dumb jock"
"stuck up cheerleader"
"all women are bad drivers"
Why we do what we do.

The underdog team actually loses the big game at the end of the movie.
Internal Conflict
- Katniss has to kill others or she will be killed herself (decision).

External Conflict -
Katniss has to fight other competitors during the Games.
"Carol reflected momentarily on her lost love. She knew that that Snickers in her car would never last in the early August heat. Yet the walk was too far, way too far for her to bear."
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