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CHP 15: POLITICAL REVOLUTIONS

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Transcript of CHP 15: POLITICAL REVOLUTIONS

SPANISH COLONIZATION:
By the 1570s, the Spanish had established roughly 200 cities and towns in the New World.- cathedrals, first universities in the Americas, in Lima, Peru and Mexico City

In 1795, New Spain (Spanish possessions in North and Central America and the Caribbean) included Mexico, Panama, several Caribbean islands, and most of the United States west of the Mississippi River.

EXTRACTION:
sugar plantations in the Americas and the Caribbean and gold mines in Mexico
LABOR: intention to use Amerindians as their labor force, relying on African slaves

GOVERNANCE:
İImitating central government in Spain; regulating everything from
transatlantic commerce to the makeup of individual settlements. The Law of the Indies,
(1573,) decreed that all Spanish settlements be modeled on the plan of a Spanish village

RELIGION:
enforced Christianity (Catholicism); Catholic Church is an impt actor in South America
rigid class and race distinctions

FRENCH COLONIZATION
French arrival in Americas dates back to 16th century; the first French colony, Acadia: founded in 1604, Quebec: founded in 1608

slower than British and French; population was low in 17th century (1660: 3000 people)

New France: 18th century U.S. Midwest, Louisiana, and Canada,

EXTRACTION:
based upon the fur trade and, to a lesser extent fishing
French colonies in the Caribbean: plantation-based colonies for sugar and food

LABOR:
mainly in the form of trade with the natives in mainland, in Saint Dominge and Martinique relied heavily on the labor of African slaves

GOVERNANCE:
Under king’s direct control (albeit nominal). In practice, each French colony
under the jurisdiction of the governor-general, while the intendant was the chief
administrator. The colonies operated under French law (Code Civil)

class distinctions are not rigid as in France; gender imbalance (1660 -6 men to 1 woman) Louis XIV sent boatloads of women to the new colony. By the 1700s, the population became 15,000

RELIGION: Christianity (Catholicism) via integrating the natives
native French relations are better than English & Dutch
BRITISH COLONIZATION
In the southern colonies in Virginia and the Carolinas: plantation model.

The settlements of New England and the Middle Colonies – Pennsylvania, New York, New Jersey, and Delaware: operated on a family-farm model.

In 1660 there were 24,000 colonists; by 1700, the English colonies had 100,000 settlers

EXTRACTION:
tobacco (1617: 70,000 pounds/year)

LABOR:
indentured servitude
in N. and African slave in Virginia

i
ndentured servitude:
the policy to attract settlers and laborers: “headright” system-Anyone who paid the passage of a worker received 50 acres of land; those who are brought to Americas by funding had to work to pay their debt

Settlement in New England differed from the Virginian model: Puritans settled in Massachusetts worked in family farms; gender balance

british colonization reflects a more autonomous rule on the side of the colonizers
DUTCH COLONIZATION
Netherlands only controlled the Hudson River Valley from 1609 until 1664

Dutch entrepreneurs established New Netherland, a series of trading posts, towns, and forts up and down the Hudson River that laid the groundwork for towns that still exist today.

Dutch West India Company (the Westindische Compagnie or WIC) began organizing the first permanent Dutch settlement in 1623

In 1664 and 1674 Dutch lost their territories to British
THE BACKGROUND OF REVOLUTIONS
17th century Europe-

competition among European powers became global in character
Netherlands attacked the American and Asian colonies of Spain and Portugal, even seizing parts of Portugal’s colonial empire in Brazil and Angola.
Great Britain, attacked Spanish fleets and seaports in the Americas.
which made defense of trade routes and distant colonies more expensive and difficult.
18th century Europe
Britain and France struggle for political preeminence in western Europe and for territory and trade outlets in the Americas and Asia
Spain and Portugal struggled to hang on.
Nearly all Europe’s great powers participated in the War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714)
Third Silesian War (betw Prussia and Austria, 1756–1763)
War between Britain and Spain over smuggling broadened into a generalized European conflict, the War of Austrian Succession (1740–1748).
The Seven Years War (1756–1763) between French and British forces and their Amerindian allies.
With peace Britain emerged with undisputed control of North America east of the Mississippi River and France had surrendered Canada and its holdings in India.
overwhelming of the fiscal resources of European powers

from 1756 to 1763 (for some lasted 23 years as it was the continuation of the War for Austrian succession) involved people on three continents, including the Caribbean.
NORTH AMERICA: France, French colonists, and their Native allies AGAINST Great Britain, the Anglo-American colonists, and the Iroquois Confederacy, which controlled most of upstate New York and parts of northern Pennsylvania; ended with the victory of Britain and at the expense of natives
CARIBBEAN: War over sugar plantations betw. France & Britain; in 1761 Spain was also involved

WEST AFRICA: British & French fought over Arabic gum-trade

INDIA (1756): British East India Company 1757 victory; gained the right to have trade in India, excluding French
PARIS TREATY 1763:
limited French presence in Caribbean, India & North America
AMERICAN WAR OF INDEPENDENCE
After defeating French (1763) the British government in America
settlers wanted to move to west into Amerindian (yerli) lands-- possible conflict and rising military expenses. Britain wanted to limit settler's pressure on Amerindian lands
B wanted colonists to shoulder more of costs of colonial defense & administration
B. wanted to limit costs by reducing fur prices and by refusing French practice of giving gifts and paying rent for frontier forts to natives.
lower fur prices forced native peoples hunt more aggressively-- environmental problems. settlers &white trappers compete with indigenous hunters.
renewed violence betw. native people & British military; defeat of Britain within a year.
Proclamation of 1763, western limit for settlement, undermining claims of established farmers without effectively protecting native land.
Efforts to transfer the cost of imperial wars to the colonists through a campaign of fiscal reforms and new taxes
The Currency Acts of 1751 and 1764: an attempt by Parliament to limit the colonies' ability to create their own currency to solve possible inflation and control the colonies
Stamp Act of 1765, tax on all legal documents, newspapers, pamphlets, and nearly all printed material.


THE NORTH AMERICAN WAR OF INDEPENDENCE, 1776
Colonists boycotted the British products-(Committees of Correspondence) and attacked officials
British authorities reacted; dissolved colonial legislature of Massachusetts; sent two regiments of soldiers to reestablish control in Boston.
March 5, 1770, British soldiers fired at crowd, killing five civilians “Boston Massacre”
Parliament reduced the tax for the imported tea. Yet, payment of duty tax on the imported tea would be acknowledging Parliament's right to tax them.
Colonists rejected the tax and the tea: “Boston Tea Party” 1773

…We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are
Life
,
Liberty
and the pursuit of
Happiness.
--That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the
consent of the governed
, --That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the
Right of the People to alter or to abolish it,
and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shewn, that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security.--
IN CONGRESS , July 4, 1776. The Unanimous Declaration of the Thirteen United States of America
no direct representation; existence of British Army in colonies
Former colonies (13 states) got unconditional independence and generous territories from Britain.
In return the United States promised to repay prewar debts due to British merchants and to allow loyalists to recover property confiscated by "patriot" forces.
In the end, loyalists were badly treated, and thousands left for Canada.

The Treaty of Paris (1783)
AMERICAN REVOLUTION: was it really revolutionary?
New political arrangements.
individual states elected delegates to constitutional conventions, to draft state constitution.
state constitutions gave extensive powers to legislative bodies—the people
Women: greater equality in marriage, including property rights
no formal nobility
THE AMERICAN CONSTITUTION (1788)
The new constitution reflected the Enlightenment ideas of Locke, Montesquieu, and Rousseau.
The framers of the Constitution saw government in terms of a social contract. They provided for an elective legislature and an elected president.
The Constitution created a
federal republic
, with power divided between the federal government and the states.
The federal government was separated among the legislative, executive, and judicial branches. Each branch was provided with checks and balances on the other branches.
The Bill of Rights, the first 10 amendments to the Constitution, recognized that people had basic rights that the government must protect.

A POLITICAL REVOLUTION IN THE SENSE THAT IT CREATES A LIMITED GOVERNMENT WITHOUT A MONARCH
however, limited extent of voting rights despite the discourse of freedom&people: LIFE, LIBERTY, PROPERTY?? 15% of the whole population could participate in government

women?
slaves?
Native americans?
propertyless adult white men?

AMERICAN WAR OF INDEPENDENCE IS NOT THE SAME WITH THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION
FRANCE IN 18TH CENTURY
The colonial revolution in North America did not confront directly the privileges of an established church, monarchy, and aristocracy
The revolution in America was directed against a colonial power; in France revolution was a result of internal crisis
in France: radical social & political transformation took place at the end of revolution

CRISIS IN FRANCE:

The expenses of the War of the Austrian Succession. Louis XV (1715–1774) tried taxing nobility and other privileged

The crisis deepened when debts from the Seven Years War
Support of American Revolution, borrowing and disguising the growing debt

In 1787 king (Louis XVI) called an Assembly of Notables to approve a radical and comprehensive reform of the economy and fiscal policy

PARIS IN 18TH CENTURY
25,000 prostitutes in 1760.
40,000 children were given up by their parents in a year
Louis XVI aimed to raise taxes on the privileged classes

forced to convene the Estates-General, not gathered since 1614.

The nobles’ aim: constitutional government; personal liberty, freedom of the press and speech, and freedom from arbitrary arrest; minimal taxation, but greater political power.

The Third Estate: nobility as parasitic w/ special privileges; end privileges that enriched the clergy and the nobility; more democratic, representative, inclusive, and accountable government

Parliament of Paris ruled the three estates should meet separately, the Third Estate was enraged. They boycotted the Estates-General when it was convened in May 1789. On June 17 Third Estate, with its allies, declared itself the "National Assembly."
Abbe Emmanuel- Joseph Sieyes (1748-1836), What Is the Third Estate? (1789).

FRANCE IN 18TH CENTURY
The National Assembly issued the "Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen" with 17 articles, including: (August 1789)
The representatives of the French People, formed into a National Assembly, considering ignorance, forgetfulness or contempt of the rights of man to be the only causes of public misfortunes and the corruption of Governments, have resolved to set forth, in a solemn Declaration, the natural, unalienable and sacred rights of man, to the end that this Declaration, constantly present to all members of the body politic, may remind them unceasingly of their rights and their duties; to the end that the acts of the legislative power and those of the executive power, since they may be continually compared with the aim of every political institution, may thereby be the more respected; to the end that the demands of the citizens, founded henceforth on simple and incontestable principles, may always be directed toward the maintenance of the Constitution and the happiness of all.
In consequence whereof, the National Assembly recognizes and declares, in the presence and under the auspices of the Supreme Being, the following Rights of Man and of the Citizen.
Article 1 -
Men are born and remain free and equal in rights. Social distinctions may be based only on considerations of the common good. 
Article 2 - The aim of every political association is the preservation of the natural and imprescriptible rights of man. These rights are
Liberty, Property, Safety and Resistance to Oppression. 
Article 3 - The
source of all sovereignty lies essentially in the Nation
. No corporate body, no individual may exercise any authority that does not expressly emanate from it. 

BASTILLE DAY, JULY 14 1789
FRENCH REVOLUTION PHASE 1: NATIONAL ASSEMBLY PHASE-LIBERAL
Over the next two years, the National Assembly
drew up a constitution for a
constitutional monarchy
abolished titles and privileges of nobility and clergy;
disestablished the Roman Catholic clergy and confiscated the property of the Church
convened a new Legislative Assembly, about ½ of adult, male Frenchmen entitled to vote.
Protestants, Jews, and agnostics: full citizenship, vote and run for office if they met the property qualifications.
Citizenship would be based not on religious affiliation but on residence in the country and allegiance to its government.

International War, the "Second" Revolution, and the Terror, 1791-99
Girondins
(from the Gironde region)
:
A French revolutionary group formed largely from the middle classes/merchants. supporting Liberalism; Abolitionism; Federalism; Monarchism--willing to have wars with other european countries --active in national assembly between 1791-1793 with around 200 deputies; Jacques-Pierre Brissot


Montagnards:
Members of a radical French revolutionary groups, closely associated with the Jacobins and supported by the artisans, shopkeepers, and sansculottes. Opposed moderate Girondins-21 members-Parisian
Jacobins:
A French revolutionary party founded in 1789. Supported republicanism. It later became the most radical party of the Revolution, the Reign of Terror and the execution of the king (1793).

Sansculottes
Members of the militant, generally poorer classes of Paris, so-called because they wore trousers rather than the knee-breeches of affluent society.

Le Plaine (‘The Plain’) or Le Marais (‘The Marsh’ or ‘The Swamp’):
mass of deputies w/ no ideological position
Louis XVI was tried and convicted of treason by the National Convention and guillotined in early 1793.
The French Republic was formed.
French armies continued the “war against tyranny” by declaring war on nearly all of Europe.
In Paris, the struggle between the Girondists and the Montagnards for political power led to the political rise of the laboring poor.
The sansculottes—the laboring poor—allied with the Montagnards and helped Robespierre and the Committee of Public Safety gain power.

The “second revolution” and rapid radicalization in France

execution of 40,000 people between mid-1793 and mid-1794.
By mid-1794, enthusiasm for Robespierre’s measures had lost popular support, and Robespierre himself went to the guillotine on 9 Thermidor (July 28, 1794)
REIGN OOOF TERROR
In 1799, Bonaparte, acting with the Abbe Sieyes, staged
a
coup d'etat

and had himself appointed as First Consul. In 1802 his position was upgraded to consul for life and, in 1804, to emperor.
maintained order-
-No toleration for violent popular demonstrations. When the Paris working class rose in protest in 1795, the Convention approved the use of overwhelming military force.
Purged Robespierre’s collaborators, the Convention began to
undo the radical reforms
. the Civil Code of 1804 granted the middle class equality under the law and safeguarded their right to own property.
confirmed the gains of the peasants-removed many of the emergency economic controls holding down prices and protecting the working class.
centralized
the government,
strengthened
the bureaucracy, and granted
amnesty to nobles
.
signed the Concordat of 1801 with Pope Pius VII--which guaranteed freedom of worship for Catholics.
protected
property
, established a voting process that reduced the power of the masses, and created a new executive authority, the Directory.

Reaction and the Rise of Napoleon,1795–1815
Napoleon’s attempt to bring all of Europe under French rule laid the foundations for nationalist strife.
By 1812 Russia invasion failed; all major European powers (except the Ottomans) united against him; Forced to retreat, vanquished in Paris. Escaped exile to lead his troops one last time; at the Battle of Waterloo in Belgium in 1815, armies from Prussia, Austria, Russia, and Britain crushed him.
Congress of Vienna (1815) established the boundaries of France and mainted the European state order

POLITICAL REORDERING
OR THE AGE OF REVOLUTIONS?
CHAPTER 15....
REVOLUTION
When asked by Soviet sociologists what it meant to them, Russian peasants responded "samovol'shchina," or, roughly, "doing what you want.“
“A Concise History of the Russian Revolution”, Richard Pipes

REVOLUTION
late 14c., originally of celestial bodies, from Old French revolution, from Late Latin 
revolutionem
 (
nominative revolutio
) "a revolving," from Latin revolutus, past participle of revolvere "turn, roll back" (see revolve).
Copernicus called his great treatise which displaced the earth from the center of the universe, "On the Revolutions of Celestial Bodies" (1543)
from mid-15c. General meaning as the "instance of great change in affairs"
Sixteenth-century astrologers serving princes and generals spoke of "revolution" to designate abrupt and unforeseen events determined by the conjunction of planets-that is, by forces beyond human control.
From c.1600, the political meaning derived from French, and applied to the expulsion of the Stuart dynasty under James II in 1688 and transfer of sovereignty to William and Mary.
DEVRIM
Devirmek??
Devrim-1935- (Tr) Devir-im
Devir-1391- (Ar) dawr 1. dönüş, döngü, 2. zaman
Devlet: <1300 (baht, talih)
İIhtilal~ 1482- (Ar) ixtilal  karısıklık, fesat, bozgun → halel 
Halel—1391 1. bozma, yırtma, delme, 2. bozukluk, hasar, yırtık 
İInkılap -1500-(Ar) inḳilab  altüst olma, tersine dönme, tepetaklak olma (revolve) < (Ar) ḳalb  dönme, dönüsme→ kalp
Kalp--1330 kalb 1. dönme, döndürme (isim)
English words which were invented, or gained their modern meanings, substantially in the period of
1789-1848
.

'
industry
', 'industrialist', '
factory'
, 'middle class', '
working class
', 'capitalism' and '
socialism
’, 'aristocracy, '
railway
', 'liberal‘ '
conservative
' as political terms, 'nationality', '
scientist
' and '
engineer
', 'proletariat' and (economic) '
crisis
'. 'Utilitarian' and '
statistics
', 'sociology' and several other names of modern sciences, '
journalism
' and 'ideology', are all coinages or adaptations of this period.* So is '
strike'
and 'pauperism'.
Goya' Saturn Devouring his Son
Saturn, the Roman mythological character, who, fearing that his children would one day overthrow him, ate each one of them upon their births.
Ottoman ambassador Halet Efendi in The Coronation of Napoleon in 1804, by Jacques-Louis David
NAPOLEONic empire--hail to the dream of roman empire 1799–1815
http://www.dailymotion.com/video/x14dfu8_war-and-peace-1966-pt-1_creation
Bondarchuk's War and Peace (1967)
"It was the best of times. It was the worst of times... it was the season of Light, it was the season of Darkness, it was the spring of hope, it was the winter of despair.“ Charles Dickens
Importance of ideas, philosophes as precursors of revolution. Focuses on 3 months of the revolution and “Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen." R.R. Palmer's The Age of the Democratic Revolution (1959)
Significance of class interests in the revolution, highlights the next chronological stage, as urban workers and rural peasantry escalated their protests. Georges Lefebvre's The Coming of the French Revolution (1939)
Revolution as "discourse," an interplay of ideas and interest groups that constantly shifts, or "skids," as events unfold. Francois Furet's Interpreting the French Revolution (1978)
Revolution as a crisis (Reinhart Kosseleck); for some it seeded the origins of Totalitarianism (Jacob Talmon)
UNDERSTANDING FRENCH REVOLUTION
THE HAITIAN REVOLUTION (1791-1804)
HAITI: SLAVE REVOLUTION AND THE OVERTHROW OF COLONIALISM, 1791-1804
In 1789—news of calling of France’s Estates General arrived on the island
Wealthy white planters sent a delegation to Paris charged with seeking more home rule and greater economic freedom
The free mixed-race population, the
gens de couleur
, also sent representatives; demanded ending race discrimination and achieving political equality with whites. (they received it)
They did not ask for freedom for slaves; forged an alliance with sympathetic French radicals
By 1791 whites, led by the planter elite, and the
gens de couleur
were engaged in open warfare.
A slave rebellion began on the plantations of the north and spread throughout the colony under the leadership of François Dominique Toussaint L’Ouverture.
Spanish supported the slaves; American leaders rushed to support the whites of St. Domingue; British decided to invade Haiti in 1793
The situation became more complex when French civil commissioners convinced Toussaint L’Ouverture, that the new French Government was committed to ending slavery.

As a well educated and comparatively wealthy man, (gens de couleur) he was sent to plead before the National Assembly "for the concession of civil rights to free men of color and for the emancipation (freedom) of enslaved people in Haiti.“
1492: Columbus’s arrival
1492-1697: Spain territory (eastern part)
1697-1803: France territory-as a pirate outpost
The richest European colonies in the Americas.
Think about the fact that the France is broke in 1789.
Its plantations produced sugar, cotton, indigo, and coffee
The colony accounted for two-thirds of France’s tropical imports and generated nearly one-third of all French foreign trade

François Dominique Toussaint L’Ouverture
The next decade: civil war against Spanish and British forces in Haiti.
Slaves allied with France and France abolished slavery in 1794
In 1802 Napoleon sent force to Saint Domingue to reestablish both French colonial authority and slavery because he wanted to restore his power in America and Haiti was the most profitable colony. Toussaint L’Ouverture was put in prison-another war
1804 declaration of independence-yellow fever-Napoleon retreated & sold Louisiana to jefferson
HAITI: SLAVE REVOLUTION AND THE OVERTHROW OF COLONIALISM, 1791-1804
POST-REVOLUTION
environmental degradation and poverty:
sugarcane fields become scorched battlefields
freed slaves rushed to stake out independent plots on the old plantations and in wooded areas.
new peasant class energetically cleared the land.
Haiti became deforested, and intensive cultivation caused erosion and soil depletion
No international recognition from fellow revolutionaries.
France’s commitment to empire > ideals of republican citizenship.
Even Thomas Jefferson, author of the Declaration of Independence and U.S. President at the time, refused to recognize Haiti.
all ruled by crowns; (
imperial rule
impact)
impact of Church--authoritarian, Catholic
no experience of self-government (unlike N. American colonies)
class division and
RIGID
social hierarchy+ethnicity+ race(landowners, slaves etc)
whites outnumbered natives, africans and mixed
revolution was shadowed by the fear of social rebellion
independence movements used the discourse of nativism
protests were scattered and uncoordinated
Different from Haiti slave revolution, 19th century revolts of America were mostly undertaken by
creole
, (American-born direct descendants of Spanish settlers) elites.
at the end, the imperial structure was destroyed but colonial/social structure was kept intact--no union of old colonies like in U.S

THE END OF COLONIALISM IN LATIN AMERICA: INDEPENDENCE ?1810-30
American-born direct descendants of Spanish settlers (
mazombos
: American-born direct descendants of Portuguese settlers)
formed less than 5 percent of the total population.
feared the potential power of the Amerindian,
mestizo
(mixed descent),
mulatto
(a person who is born from one white parent and one black parent), and African majority.
Their victory under a banner of liberty was often at the expense of poorer, ethnic, and mixed populations.
Father Miguel Hidalgo (1753- 1811) in Mexico, Simon Bolivar (1783-1830) in Venezueala, and José de San Martin (1778-1850) in Argentine, were all creoles
CREOLE
PORTUGUESE COLONIZATION
With the Treaty of Tordesillas (1494) Spain & Portugal shared the new world.

1500 navigator Pedro Álvares Cabral landed in what is now Brazil and laid claim to it in the name of King Manuel I of Portugal.
BRAZIL (ruled by Portugal) an unfinished business
Napoleon invaded Portugal in 1807 and Spain in 1808.
Royals & associates led to Rio de Janeiro, then the capital of Brazil and stayed there for 13 yrs.
The royals’ migration prevented the need for colonial claims for autonomy
The royals’ presence make Brazil the center of Portuguese empire
the royal family shared power with the local planter aristocracy
economy prospered and slavery expanded

BRAZIL
In 1821 Joao returned to Lisbon, but left his son & heir,
Prince Pedro
, in Rio.
In 1822
Pedro
declared Brazil as an independent empire for he feared an upheaval organized by creoles.
Pedro crowned as the "Constitutional Emperor and Perpetual Defender of Brazil," yet effective rulers of Brazil were the CREOLE elites.

between 1788 and 1888, when slavery was abolished, Brazil produced about 10 million tons of coffee at the expense of 300 million tons of ancient forest biomass (the accumulated biological material from living organisms)

MEXICO
MEXICO
Father Miguel Hidalgo led the first wave of Mexico's revolt until he was executed in 1811. Father Jose Maria Morelos (1765-1815) took command of the revolutionary movement-land acquisition, equality.
Morelos aimed to displace the Spanish and creole elites, to abolish slavery, and to revoke the special privileges and landholdings of the Church (unlike Hidalgo).
Peninsulars and creoles formed alliance and demand Spanish armies. The army crushed uprising.
Mexico won independence in 1821 (revolution controlled by) most conservative creole elite. 1821-23 ruled as a monarchy, but in 1823 it was proclaimed a republic. 1910 will be a revolutionary moment in Mexico.

MEXICO
Military leaders, landowners, and foreign powers all struggled for control, and Mexico remained unstable for decades.
Texas, with waves of immigrants entering from the United States, and encouraged by the United States government, declared its independence from Mexico in 1836. Nine years later the United States annexed Texas, precipitating the Mexican-American war. In the peace settlement, America gained the territories of its current southwestern States.

Economically, until at least 1870, Latin America remained overwhelmingly agrarian
hacienda
, a kind of feudal estate, continuing as the principal institution for organizing production and labor. Majority of the hacienda owners were creole; workers were overwhelmingly native Americans (Indian) and mestizo.
As production for foreign markets increased, new forms of foreign domination, British neo-colonialism arose. By 1824, there were 100 British commercial firms with 3000 British citizens. Britain's economic domination increased with the industrial revolution.

HOW CAN WE COMPARE AND CONTRAST THE REVOLUTIONS OF 19TH CENTURY?

attacking spanish ships which carries gold from south America to Europe

french convinced these pirates to settle
One of the most brutal of the slave plantation systems.
By 1791, 500,000 black slaves: overwhelming majority of population (90%); 40,000 whites--owners of plantations and slaves, and 30,000 free people of color, both mulatto and black and there were also poor whites

subject to discrimination
slaves & free colored people hoped for equality
Since Spanish Bourbons fell captive to Napoleon in 1807 colonial elites in Buenos Aires (Argentina), Caracas (Venezuela), and Mexico City (Mexico) enjoyed self-rule without an emperor. Creoles supporting French/spanish ruler until 1810s.
In 1814 Napoleon was defeated; Bourbons returned to power
Bourbons reinstated peninsulars (colonial officials born in Spain); increased taxes, favored mercantilism, creoles got upset.
from 1810 to 1813 priest led peasant revolts emerged
peasant+creole vs. peninsulares-- class warfare
Inspired "liberation theology“ (catholicism as a liberating ideology)
Argued peasant poverty was a product of Spanish and creole rule. --alliance betw. creoles &peasants ended

"Enlightenment is man's emergence from his self-imposed
immaturity
. Immaturity is the inability to use one's understanding without guidance from another. This immaturity is self-imposed when its cause lies
not in lack of understanding
, but
in lack of resolve and courage to use it without guidance from another
. Sapere Aude! [dare to know] "Have courage to use your own understanding!"--that is the motto of enlightenment."

Kant
WHAT IS SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION?
WHAT IS ENLIGHTENMENT?
HOW DID ENLIGHTENMENT IDEAS AFFECT ATLANTIC REVOLUTIONS?

HOW DID ATLANTIC AND LATIN AMERICAN REVOLUTIONS
DIFFER FROM EACH OTHER? HOW ARE THEY SIMILAR?

WERE THEY REALLY REVOLUTIONARY?
ENLIGHTENMENT:
Reformation and Counter-Reformation: increasing literacy and diffusing the new science and its premises.
Renaissance-reinforcing older sources
Nicolaus Copernicus (1473–1542) and Galileo Galilei (1564–1642) challenging the authorities and traditional knowledge

Sir Francis Bacon (1561–1626): real science entailed the formulation of hypotheses that could be tested in carefully controlled experiments; no trust to traditional authorities

Newton (1642–1727)set forth the laws of motion
starting from mid 18th century: entry of scientific thinking in different domains-military; artisanship
How can we compare the American, French and the Latin American Revolutions?
scientific revolution
-mid 16th century-early 19th century
-rejection of
-external authority of divinely revealed scripture
-speculations of ancient philosophers
-wisdom of cultural traditions
Copernicus from Poland
Galileo from Italy
Descartes from France
Newton from England
-change of ideas about the place of humankind in cosmos
-change in the conception of God and religious knowledge==deism & pantheism
-change in the idea about the acquisition & use of knowledge==empiricism
-change in human affairs
-are social hierarchies natural legitimate?
-are political regimes legitimate the way they are?

SKEPTICISM AND THE IDEA OF PROGRESS

NEITHER HUMAN SOCIETY NOR HISTORY IS STATIC AND CAN BE FIXED WITH TRADITION OR DOGMA; IT CAN BE CHANGED, IMPROVED BY HUMAN ACTION GUIDED BY REASON
1. Enlightenment did weaken the hold of traditional religion
2. Enl. thinkers taught a secular code of ethics, one that was divorced from religious beliefs. HUMANISM AND HUMANITY
3. Enl. thinkers developed a critical spirit of analysis not to accept routine tradition.
4. Interest in history and belief in progress
5. Differentiation of absolutism from despotism
The Spread of Enlightenment Thinking through the Public Sphere: Academies, Masonic Lodges, and Salons
In his Encyclopédie Diderot compiled scientific and social scientific knowledge

Jean Jacques Rousseau reflected on the sources of inequality having greater impact on Immanuel Kant
http://oyc.yale.edu/history/hist-202/lecture-5#transcript
AMERICAN AND FRENCH REVOLUTIONS

background and specificities
what was revolutionary in american experience?
FOR SOME not the revolution itself but the kind of society that emerged within colonies was revolutionary

BEFORE INDEPENDENCE--no rigid social hierarchy (despite class/race/gender inequalities); already existing autonomous rule-- revolution widened scope of representation and formed a federal republic

ON THE OTHER HAND it was a conservative & elite/upper class based revolution--no change in land/capital acquisition


the impact of french revolution on haiti (which was a french colony)
-rich/white plantowners/landowners--hoped for greater autonomy & fewer econ restrictions (similar to British colonists in America)
-poor whites (petit bleuncs)-hoped for equality among whites
-free people of color--equality for all (except the slaves, which is like 90% of population)
-slaves--hoped for freedom

soon war between slaves, people of color and whites of all classes emerged

salons as spheres of enlightenment
coffee houses as places of public discussions
winning the prizes of academe was an important motive for thinkers
ideas emerged w/ scientific rev. & enlightenment contributed to the questing of existing political orders. ideas and real politics came together
the specificity of each context is important to understand the shape and the results of revolutions. american revolutions (north and south) took place against the background of colonial experiences (british in north america vs. spanish and portugese in south america), economic and social relations (class/race/religion). keep them in mind in analysis
France was experiencing huge tensions within society due to economic reasons
criticism of the monarchical rule
was common
how revolutionary is this picture?
different approaches, different emphases
similarity with the French Revolution: the Bourbons did something which provoked conflict creoles. 1804, Spanish-British war created a fiscal crisis. The Bourbons ordered the immediate redemption of mortages notionally held by various religious foundations in the Americas. These mortgages were a way in which Hacienda and mine owners and merchants in Latin America endowed foundations which provided income for members of the lower clergy. The foundations didn’t actually possess the cash, so the wealthy people who stood behind the endowments had to pay up the full value of the mortgages. the Crown secured a forced loan of 40 million pesos from the dominant classes in the colonies. The very rich were disgruntled, but smaller creole landowners and merchants actually had to sell off their lands and other assets to raise the money.

Miguel Hidalgo, the first creole leader of the Independence movement, lost his hacienda under the redemptions.

The Church was also upset, and again it was the lower creole clergy depending on income from religious foundations

Bourbons also introduced mercantilist policies which established much stronger control over colonial trade than had existed before, and favoured the Spanish metropolitan economy. Though a lot of smuggling went on, legally imported goods became more expensive, which discontented the landowners in the colonies, who liked to consume Spanish brandy and fine clothes.

taken advantage of growing demographic pressure to raise rents and lower wages, at the end of the 18th century the landlords began to evict even more prosperous tenants whose families had lived for generations on the estates, leasing their land to people with capital: merchants, owners of textile workshops, officials and tax collectors.

fremch recognizing creole-

what is the significance of scientific revolution?
1700- 1721 Great Northern War: Swedish Empire against Russia, Poland & Denmark
1701-1714 War of the Spanish Succession: Spanish loyal to Charles, Austria, Prussia, Hanover, Great Britain, Dutch Republic against Spanish loyal to Philip, France, Bavaria
1733-1738 War of Polish Succession
1740 - 1790 War of Austrian Succession: Habsburg Empire against Prussia at times against Britain or France
1745-1746: Jacobite War
1756-1763 Seven Years War
1787-1792 Austro-Turkish War
1787-1792 Second Russo-Turkish War

1600–1629 Polish–Swedish War
1618–1648 Thirty Years' War
1620–1621 Polish–Ottoman War
1627–1629 Anglo-French War
1651–1986 Three Hundred and Thirty Five Years' War
1652–1674 Anglo-Dutch Wars
1653 Swiss peasant war of 1653
1654 First Bremian War
1654–1667 Russo–Polish War
1655–1660 Second Northern War
1656 War of Villmergen
1663–1664 Austro-Turkish War
1666 Second Bremian War
1666–1671 Polish–Cossack–Tatar War
1667–1668 War of Devolution
1670–1671 Razin's Rebellion
1672 First Kuruc Uprising
1672–1678 Franco-Dutch War
1672–1673 Second Genoese–Savoyard War
1675–1679 Scanian War
1676–1681 Russo-Turkish War
1679 Covenanter Rebellion
1683–1684 War of the Reunions
1683–1699 Great Turkish War
1685 Monmouth Rebellion
1688–1697 Nine Years' War
1689–1692 First Jacobite Rising
17TH CENTURY WARS (SELECTED)
18TH CENTURY WARS
Peninsulares

Creoles

Mestizos

Mulattoes

Amerindians

Zambos

Africans
European born-highest class

Born in Americas; Land-owning; Elite; Could not hold highest positions

Spanish and Amerindian descent

Spanish and African descent

native people

Amerindian and African descent

slaves
The Seven Years’ War
French & British
French & British
some loyalists some revolutionaries
british national debt:
75 mio pounds in 1756
133 mio pounds in 1763

“Boston Massacre” 1770
“Boston Tea Party” 1773
catch-all category including a range of thinkers and writers— natural scientists, philosophers, satirists, economists, historians, essayists, novelists, political theorists and even musicians like Mozart.
ENLIGHTENMENT:
commonalty: belief in the power of rational understanding based on empirical knowledge

Descartes in France, Spinoza in Holland and Leibniz in south western Germany;Locke in England

Voltaire and Montesquieu in France were great admirers of Locke, drawing from his writings the conclusion that the countries of continental Europe should be reformed along English lines.
1. strength of counter-revolutionary opposition
2. lack of a parliamentary tradition? no space for legitimate opposition: all political rivals had the potential to be denounced as conspirators against popular sovereignty.
3. the war with foreign powers (1792): alliance of counter-revolutionary French nobles and key powers including Austria, Russia, Britain and Spain- suspicion of covert counterrevolutionary allegiance
WHY?
Liberal
conservative
ORGANIZED GROUPS IN REVOLUTION
In June 1791 Louis XVI and Marie-Antoinette kept as hostage- Louis was still the king and monarchy was still an option
Thousands of aristocrats emigrated to neighboring countries; clergy was split. The Pope demanded the clergy not to take an oath of loyalty to the new Republic.
France declared war with several major countries of Europe.
War went poorly and mobs stormed the royal palace attempting to kill the king and beginning the "Second French Revolution.“
A counter-revolutionary army was formed within the borders of Austria.

devrim kendi cocuklarini yer
die revolution ist wie saturn, sie frißt ihre eignen kinder")
40,000 whites
30,000 free color of people
poor whites
resenting free colored people
500,000 slaves
whites
creoles
equal legal rights
privilege
poor whites
wanna be rich
slaves
freedom
I WANT IT ALL
The Congress of Vienna 1814-1815--the United Kingdom, Austria, Prussia and Russia, the European countries redrew the map of Europe and attempted to put an end to the period heralded by the French Revolution
----the preservation of political equilibrium among the powers
=----the restoration of old dynasties, driven out by the revolutionary wave.

- Prussia expands to include a part of the Grand Duchy of Warsaw, Swedish Pomerania, over half of Saxony, and above all, the greater part of the Rhineland. With these acquisitions, Prussia definitively obtains the status of a great European power.

- Russia secures its takeover of Finland. It is granted trusteeship over the greater part of Poland and removes Bessarabia from the Ottoman Empire. The Czar thereby continues his march towards Constantinople.

- Austria, for its part, recovers the Tyrol and receives the kingdom of Venetian Lombardy, as well as Dalmatia. These latter territorial expansions give the Hapsburg Empire a southern and Mediterranean engagemen
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