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Four Step PR Process
Transcript of Four Step PR Process
The first step in a process to bring about a specific objective
Four Step PR Process: R-P-I-E
Why? How does research help?
Why? How does research help?
Research Begins with Questions
What is the problem?
What kind of info do we need?
How will it be used?
Which publics should we target?
In-house or hire a consultant?
How will data be analyzed, reported, or applied?
Types of Research
valid, but not reliable
uses nonrandom samples
eg focus groups, one-on-one interviews, convenience polling
highly structured, closed-ended
valid and reliable
projectable to larger audience
typically uses random samples
eg telephone polls, mail surveys, mall intercept studies
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No. 1 form of informal research is...
Is this primary or secondary?
Scientific Sampling Methods
every member of the target audience has an equal chance of being selected
probability sample vs. nonprobability sample
quota sample= based on demographic
Sample size matters
1,500 respondents (3% margin of error) is highly accurate for national polls
250-500 respondents (5-6% margin of error)
100 respondents (10 % margin of error)
1-2 % direct mail to general public
5-20 % content is highly relevant
30-80 % mail to members by org
include self-addressed, stamped envelope
mail first class
postcard reminder within a few days of survey
second mailing with cover letter
Gather info (sources?)
Piggyback, aka omnibus, survey
Web and email surveys
Strategy vs Objective
A strategy statement describes how, in concept, a campaign will achieve objectives.
motivational or informational
SMART: Specific, Measurable, Actionable, Realistic and Timed
Tactics are the nuts and bolts of the plan.
Effective communication is...
a clear communication/message
received and understood by intended audience
remembered and acted upon
Accurate dissemination of message
Acceptance of message
Change in overt behavior
Communication Models & Theories
Berlo's classic model includes four elements; the fifth element, "feedback," is included in most modern models
One Way vs.
Which is more effective?
Name some barriers.
Passive vs. Active information seekers
Is your message:
Five Stages of Adoption
More than 1/2 of respondents believe that a large company is guilty if investigated
rank-and-file employees received
20% of a message filtered through four levels of managers
Well written objectives are the key to proper evaluation (measurement)
Was the event/activity adequately planned?
Did the message recipients understand it?
Were all audiences reached?
Were the objectives met?
How might we be more successful/improve?
Three Levels of Measurement
Targeted audiences - Impressions
Retention - Comprehension
Awareness - Reception
Behavior Change - Attitude Change
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Prove your worth...
establish a baseline