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Four Step PR Process: R-A-C-E

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Sadie Wilks

on 14 September 2017

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Transcript of Four Step PR Process: R-A-C-E

Four Step PR Process
R esearch
A ction (planning)
C ommunication
E valuation

Research
The first step in a process to bring about a specific objective
Action/Planning
Situation
Objectives
Audience
Strategy
Four Step PR Process: R-A-C-E
Why? How does research help?
Subject
Situation
Time
Budget
Consider:
Why? How does research help?
Credibility
Reality Check
Define Audience
Test Messages
Formulate Strategy
Prevent Crises
Monitor Competition
Generate Publicity
Research Begins with Questions
What is the problem?
What kind of info do we need?
How will it be used?
Which publics should we target?
In-house or hire a consultant?
How will data be analyzed, reported, or applied?
Timetable?
Costs?
Types of Research
Qualitative
"soft" data
exploratory, open-ended
valid, but not reliable
rarely projectable
uses nonrandom samples
eg focus groups, one-on-one interviews, convenience polling
Quantitative
"hard" data
highly structured, closed-ended
valid and reliable
projectable to larger audience
typically uses random samples
eg telephone polls, mail surveys, mall intercept studies
page 95 in THINK
No. 1 form of informal research is...


literature searches
Is this primary or secondary?
Scientific Sampling Methods
Random sampling
every member of the target audience has an equal chance of being selected
probability sample vs. nonprobability sample
quota sample= based on demographic

Sample size matters
1,500 respondents (3% margin of error) is highly accurate for national polls
250-500 respondents (5-6% margin of error)
100 respondents (10 % margin of error)
Response Rates
1-2 % direct mail to general public
5-20 % content is highly relevant
30-80 % mail to members by org
include self-addressed, stamped envelope
provide incentives
mail first class
postcard reminder within a few days of survey
second mailing with cover letter
page 100 in THINK
Research Methods

Gather info (sources?)
Content analysis
Copy testing
Focus groups
Mail questionnaires (p. 100 in THINK)
Telephone surveys
Personal interviews
Piggyback, aka omnibus, survey
Web and email surveys
Tactics
Calendar/timetable
Budget
Measurement
Strengths
Weaknesses
Opportunities
Threats
Strategy vs Objective
A strategy statement describes how, in concept, a campaign will achieve objectives.
Objectives are:
motivational or informational
SMART: Specific, Measurable, Actionable, Realistic and Timed

Tactics are the nuts and bolts of the plan.
Communication
Effective communication is...
a clear communication/message
received and understood by intended audience
remembered and acted upon

see chart on page 117, THINK
Key Objectives:
Message exposure
Accurate dissemination of message
Acceptance of message
Attitude change
Change in overt behavior
page 117, THINK
Communication Models & Theories
Sender/Source
(Encoder)
Message

Channel

Receiver (Decoder)
Feedback

Berlo's classic model includes four elements; the fifth element, "feedback," is included in most modern models
One Way vs.
Two Way
Which is more effective?
Name some barriers.
Passive vs. Active information seekers
Is your message:
Understood
Credible
Memorable
Actionable
Five Stages of Adoption
Awareness
Interest
Evaluation
Trial
Adoption
Factoids:

More than 1/2 of respondents believe that a large company is guilty if investigated

Employee Communication
rank-and-file employees received
20% of a message filtered through four levels of managers
Evaluation
Well written objectives are the key to proper evaluation (measurement)
Was the event/activity adequately planned?
Did the message recipients understand it?
Were all audiences reached?
Were the objectives met?
Unforeseen circumstances?
Within budget?
How might we be more successful/improve?
Three Levels of Measurement
Basic
Intermediate
Advanced
Basic:
Targeted audiences - Impressions
Media placements
Intermediate:
Retention - Comprehension
Awareness - Reception
Advanced:
Behavior Change - Attitude Change
Opinion Change
page 129, THINK
Prove your worth...
establish a baseline
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