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APHG: Chapter 7 KI#1-2_Ethnic Distribution
Transcript of APHG: Chapter 7 KI#1-2_Ethnic Distribution
Distribution of Ethnicities in the United States
Three Races: White, Black, and Other.
Three Ethnic Groups: African American, Asian American, Hispanic American.
The U.S. Census, Race and Ethnicity
A biological classification, in which race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities producing inherent superiority or inferiority.
Why do Ethnicities have Distinctive Distributions?
African Americans and Hispanics, tend to cluster in major cities.
Ethnic Clustering: State Scale
Ethnicity: A group of people who share a cultural traditions of a specific hearth (homeland).
Race: A group that share a biological ancestry.
Ethnicity Vs. Race
A racists subscribes to these beliefs.
Black, African American, Negro
American indian, Alaska Native
Guamanian or Chamorro
other Pacific Islander
All spanish speaking countries
Mexican, Mexican American, Chicano
other Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish Origin
1% American Indian
3% Identified with more than one.
Asian American refers to a ethnicity,
Asian refers to a race.
African American is an Ethnicity,
whereas Black is a race.
Place of Origin
Hispanic is considered to be an ethnicity
not a race.
European decent is not categorized: No Irish or Italian
Detroit = 85% African American,
only 7% in the rest.
New York City =25% Hispanic, only 8% in the rest.
During the late 19th and early 20th Century: Irish, Polish, Italian, German Immigrants immigrated to cities, creating Ethnic neighborhoods: Little Little, Poletown, or German Town.
As international and Internal Migration patterns change so do the makeup of neighborhoods.
The Great Migration
Currently 90% of African Americans and Hispanics live in metropolitan areas, compared to 75% of all Americans.
La Mesa Demographic Information
Forced Migration: American Slave Trade
1619: Jamestown, first African Slaves arrived.
18th Century: 400,000 forced to migrate
1808: Slave Trade banned, 250,000 believed to be smuggled afterward
Triangular Trade and the Middle Passage
Voluntary Migration: Latin America & Asia
After a change in the quota system during the 1960'-70's, migration increased.
Internal Migration: African Americans
Interregional: After the Civil War most freed slaves stayed in the South, and worked as sharecroppers.
Works fields of landowner, pays rent, seed, food, farm equipment in agricultural products. Debt became a new form of slavery.
Early 20th Century
Mechanization of farms, reduced the demand for labor.
Mechanization of industry, increased the demand for labor.
The Great Migration: 1910-1920
The Second Great Migration: 1940-1950
WWI & WWII both increased the demand for labor in industrial cities as did the rise in consumerism in the 1950's.
No Jim Crow Laws in The North
African American Immigrants cluster in Ethnic Neighborhoods, inhabited by previous migrants. Characterized by high population density, lacked services and infrastructure
Referred to as Ghettos
White families began to move out of the Urban core and into less dense suburbs.
Blockbusting: Real Estate agents convinced white homeowners to sell their homes under market value and sell them to African American families above market value.
Redlining: Banks refusing to provide loans to families of color in areas dominated by whites.
The Kerner Commission (1968): U.S. cities were divide into separate and unequal societies, still persists today.
Limits Social Mobility
Ethnic Neighborhoods don't
appreciate in value
Due to poor services
Wealth cannot be passed down
to future generations
Families are limited to
homes in their ethnic
and spatial inequality
by Ethnicity and Race
Once was due to legal means, presently created through cultural preference or discrimination.
The United States: "Separate by Equal"
South Africa: Apartheid
U.S. Supreme Court: Plessy v. Ferguson ( 1896)
Jim Crow Laws ( 1863-1968)
U.S. Supreme Court: Brown v. Board of Education
The physical separation of races into
different geographic areas.
All had different classifications