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Fibre, yarn and fabric - more information!!

Summary of fibres, yarns and fabrics and their impact on end-uses.

Ilsa Gay

on 16 September 2011

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Transcript of Fibre, yarn and fabric - more information!!

Fibre A fibre is defined as a fine thread of any
substance with a length of at least 100 times
greater than the width. Natural Manufactured Fibre Blends Yarn A yarn is a thread with a continuous length
but a small cross section, made from fibres that are
usually held together by twisting or spinning. Staple spun Monofilament Multifilament Novelty Multifilament yarns are made from two
or more filaments of a manufactured fibre,
such as rayon, polyester or nylon. Novelty or special-effect yarns usually have an
interesting texture or unusual features that
distinguish them from regular yarns. They can be made by many different techniques and can be made all types of fibres and fibre combinations. A yarn made from staple fibres, such as cotton or wool, or manufactured fibres cut into short lengths. Wool Cotton Woollen Worsted A woollen yarn is characterised by short staple wool fibres
that are not always uniform in length. The fibres in the yarn
are softer and looser that those in worsted yarn, and are not as uniformly aligned, so they are fuzzier. A worsted yarn is characterised by longer fibres.
The fibres are more uniform in length than those
in woollen yarn, smoother and more compact when
spun. These yarns are used in weaving fine suiting. Monofilament yarns are made from one filament
of a manufactured fibre, such as rayon, polyester or
nylon. Fabric Woven Knitted Non-woven Plain weave Twill weave Satin weave Single knit Pile knit Felt Fibres are spun into yarns. Yarns are woven or knitted into fabrics. Except for Non-wovens which are made directly from fibres! Protein Cellulosic Wool Cotton Synthetic Regenerated Polyester
Nylon Rayon Cotton and Polyester

Nylon and Elastomeric A woollen yarn is characterised by short wool
fibres that are not always uniform in length.
The fibres in the yarn are softer and looser than
those in worsted yarn, and are not as uniformly
aligned, so they are fuzzier. A worsted yarn is characterised by longer fibres.
The fibres are more uniform in length than those
in woollen yarn, smoother and are more compact
when spun. Combed Carded Combed cotton yarns consist of
fibres of long, even lengths. Carded cotton yarns consist of fibres of various lengths, resulting in a more uneven yarn Fibre Properties of Cotton The lustre of cotton is poor
but it can be mercerised
which results in low lustre. The drape of cotton is poor
but it can be improved depending
on the fabric construction. Abrasion resistance is moderate to good. Cotton fibres are relatively strong,
becoming stronger when wet. Cotton is hydrophilic, very absorbent which makes
it easily dyed and comfortable to wear as it absorbs
perspiration. The elongation of cotton is low. Cotton is a cool fibre as it is a
good conductor of heat. Cotton fabrics have low resiliency due to inelastic
nature which makes it wrinkle when crushed. Cotton garments retain shape due to inelasticity,
however if a garment is stretched out of shape
it will not return to its original size. Cotton is harmed by strong acids and
resistant to alkalis so it can be bleached. Cotton is not easily damaged by sunlight. Fibre properties of Polyester Lustre of polyester is good - it varies
depending on the fibre's cross section
and the chemicals added to the fibre. The drape of polyester is good but
can also depend on the yarn and
fabric construction. Polyester has a variable handle depending
on the shape of the fibre extruded, yarn
composition and fabric construction. Excellent abrasion resistance. Polyester fibres are relatively strong. Polyester has poor absorbency which
lowers the comfort of the fibre. Polyester fibres have excellent resilience:
fibres resist wrinkling and when crushed, recover well. Polyester has excellent dimensional stability.
It can be permanently heat set into pleats or
other interesting shapes. Polyester is relatively elastic. Fibre properties of
cotton/polyester blend Luste varies depending on percentage of blend
and delustering of the polyester. Drape improves depending on percentage of blend,
yarn type and fabric manufacturing techniques. This blend has better abrasion
resistance and strength
than all-cotton equivalent. Cotton/polyester blend is more absorbent than
all-polyester equivalent which makes it more
comfortable to wear. Resiliency is significantly greater than all-cotton equivalent so it doesn't wrinkle as much! Dimensional stability of cotton/polyester is
significantly more than its all-cotton equivalent. Elasticity of the blend is improved significantly
from the all-cotton equivalent. General characteristics of
staple spun yarns Uneven and weak. Poor lustre and durability. Good elasticity. Good resilience. Good absorbency. General Characteristics of
Monofilament yarn. Fine, strong yarn. Good lustre and durability. Poor elasticity. Poor resilience. Poor absorbency. General Characterisitcs of
Multifilament yarn. Even, strong yarn. Good lustre and durability. Medium elasticity and resilience. Slightly more absorbent than
monofilament. The main method of creating yards is to insert twist.
Twisting a strand of fibres brings the fibres closer together
and therefore, imparts more strength.
The amount of twist in a yarn affects the yarn's properties. High-twist yarn is stronger, smoother and more elastic than low-twist yarn. Low-twist yarn is softer
and more bulky than
high-twist yarn. Twist Single knit fabric. Plain weave fabrics simplest and least expensive type of weave
weft yarns pass over one warp yarn and under the next, alternating on the next row
can be made from any type of yarn
no right or wrong side
even, flat texture - good for printing
poor resilience and less absorbent than other weaves

Twill weave weft yarns pass over two or more warp yarns, then under one.
interlacing forms diagonal lines in the fabric
have a right and wrong side
heavier in weight than plain weaves
the most durable type of weave and are often used for work clothes Satin weave lustrous surface due to long warp floats over weft yarns
warp yarn goes over four weft yarns and under one
right and wrong side
filament yarns with low twist are often used for satin weave
poor strength as there are less interlacings due to long floats constructed by weft knitting
definite right and wrong side
ladder vertically
curl to wrong side when cut
stretch more widthways than lengthways
Although there are only three basic methods for constructing fabric, there
are various ways of constructing within those methods. The nature of the
fabric will also be affected by the fibre composition, the yarn structure and
the choice of construction technique. Fabric finishing will also have an
impact on the fabric, eg, sizing. So it's not just the fibre properties that influence what end-use a fabric is suitable for. Each of the properties of the fibre, and each production method of the yarn and fabric brings particular properties and performance to the end product. They can be carded and staple spun into a yarn with a medium twist. Then the cotton yarn can be woven using twill weave to create a fabric suitable for... For example, just think of all the things we can make out of cotton fibres. Cotton fibres can also be combed and staple spun into a yarn with medium to high twist, which is smoother and finer than the carded staple spun yarn. Then the yarn can be woven into a plain weave shirting fabric which can be used for... Even though the cotton fibre itself is relatively inelastic,
we can still use cotton fibres to make a garment that needs
to stretch. We can knit the cotton yarn into a single knit jersey fabric which would be suitable for... So... ...we need to understand... ...the properties of the fibre, yarn ... ...and fabric so that we can determine if the fibre, yarn and fabric are suitable for... ...a specific... end-use! To help us determine the suitability of fibre, yarn and fabric to a specific end-use we can analyse and evaluate the aesthetic and functional criteria of the item. For example, lets think about your school shirt... Functional criteria:
light weight
comfortable and breathable
excellent washability
low-maintenance Aesthetic criteria: remains white
suitable for all figure types
remains respectably neat and tidy all day we could use cotton fibres because they are
relatively strong and durable
absorbent so they soak up sweat
breathable and smooth so they are comfortable to wear
resistant to alkalis so they can be bleached to keep them white we could comb and staple spin into a yarn with a medium to high twist because it will give us a yarn that is:
Then we could weave the yarn into a plain weave because it will be:
smooth and crisp
comfortable to wear
light shirting fabric But wait!!! Cotton fibres have low resiliency and will wrinkle when crushed! This is not very good for a shirt that
needs less care and maintenance and
needs to look neat and respectable all day! We know that polyester has excellent resilience; the fibres resist wrinkling and when crushed recover well. Let's make our shirt out of polyester! But wait!! Uh Oh! what's wrong now? Polyester is hydrophobic which means it doesn't absorb water. This makes it uncomfortable to wear as it leaves any sweat against the skin.

Polyester also has a tendency to develop static electricity which again makes it uncomfortable to wear. what do we do now!!!! Well...

... what if we combine the best of cotton and polyester! A blend!!! We can use the most common blend of fibres - cotton and polyester When cotton is blended with polyester the result
is an easy-care product which has excellent wash
and wear properties.

The blend is more absorbent than the all polyester
equivalent therefore more comfortable.

Also, the blend is stronger than the all cotton equivalent. Mission Accomplished!!!!!!! So you are now set free
to use your knowledge of fibre, yarn and fabric to enjoy the wonderful world of... e t i e s
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