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Enabling Act & Night of the Long Knives
Transcript of Enabling Act & Night of the Long Knives
Hitler's Rise to Power
LI: To understand the importance of the events that led to Hitler's rise.
The Enabling Act 1933
The Enabling Law gave Hitler the power to pass any laws without consulting the Reichstag and without the approval of President Hindenburg.
"I set myself one aim...to sweep these thirty parties out of Germany..."
“In this hour I was responsible for the fate of the German people, and thereby I become the supreme judge of the German people. I gave the order to shoot the ringleaders in this treason...”
Adolf Hitler, July 1934
The Enabling Act
Key dates -
1918 - End of WW1 ( Hitler devastated & Stabbed in the back)
1919 - Treaty of Versailles - Germany humiliated on world stage
1923 - Hyperinflation in Germany - Germany in crisis.
November 1923 - Munich Putsch -Hitler failed and jailed but gains publicity.
1924-1929 - 'Golden Age' - Germany booming - Stresemann helps Germany.
1929 - Wall Street Crash ( US economy collapses and calls in loan money. Germany in serious trouble.
January 1933 - Hitler appointed Chancellor
February 1933 - Reichstag Fire - Hitler declares war on communists.
March 1933 - Enabling Act means Hitler has control of Germany.
1934 - Night of the Long Knives - 400 top SA men are murdered. Hitler now has FULL control!
If Rohm gained control of the army, he would become more powerful than Hitler.
Hitler needed the support of big business so sided with them over ordinary party members.
Hitler was worried that Rohm would try to challenge his power.
Rohm wanted the army brought under his control.
He wanted to do more for ordinary party members.
Rohm thought of himself as the equal and eventual successor of Hitler.
Between June 30th & July 2nd 1934 Hitler
removed the problem of the SA.
Hitler used another part of the Nazi organisation, the SS
to kill many of his enemies including Rohm
Others were murdered such as
Von Schleicher and Von Kahr who had crushed Hitler at the Munich Putsch.
Estimates of the deaths range from 200-1000 people but
Night of the Long Knives Mix & Match...
Hitler made a speech announcing that only 74 had been shot.
Which of Hitler’s Barons had the following roles?
1. Minister for Propaganda
2. In charge of the SS
3. Chief architect, helped to run the economy
4. Ran the police and air force
5. In charge of the SA
6. Hitler’s deputy
Hitler had decided who was innocent and
who was guilty, democracy was over.
Tuesday 3rd July, 1934
The London Evening Standard
"...They salute with both hands now..."
FROM CHANCELLOR TO DICTATOR
Between 1933-34, Hitler removed the last remains of democracy in Germany. He also got rid of any possible challenges to his authority. He got rid of the SA and when Hindenburg died, he made himself supreme ruler of Germany.
The Act was passed in order to “defend” the Reich from Communist enemies of the state as Hitler saw it.
By the end of 1933, all political parties in Germany were banned except for the Nazis. Trade Unions were also abolished.
There was NO free press, radio, theatre, music or films. There was a secret police set up (Gestapo) which hunted down the criminals who disobeyed these laws.
Within days, thousands who opposed Hitler were rounded up. Communists, Democrats and Socialists etc. By Autumn 1933, around 26,000 of them were in custody.
The Enabling Act
2. Describe what you see in the cartoon and who is in the cartoon?
4. What do you think is meant by '
They salute with both hands now?'
5. Overall, what do you think is the meaning of this cartoon?
3. Who is lying on the floor and why?
1. Where is this cartoon produced? Do you think this has any influence on how it is portrayed?
Hitler Becomes Chancellor Jan 1933
The Reichstag Fire & Law, Feb 1933
The Enabling Law, March 1933
The Night of the Long Knives, June 1934
Death of President Hindenburg, 1934
All of the following helped Hitler to
take control of Germany:
Which of these do you think was
the most important and why?
Now that Hitler had dictatorial powers, he set about consolidating Nazi authority over the country.
Key groups such as the army and big business had to be brought under Nazi control, and threats from within the party also had to be addressed.
Hitler also sought to extend Nazi control to all areas of society. Opposition was to be crushed through the setting up of a police state.
He called this policy Gleichschaltung (‘coordination’).
To what extent was the Reichstag fire a reason why Hitler was able to gain control of Germany by 1934?
When President Hindenburg died in August 1934, the last part of German democracy died also. Hitler immediately took on the roles of President and Chancellor and merged them to become Fuhrer - the supreme ruler of Germany.
He also arranged for every member of the army to pledge allegiance to Hitler personally which resulted in complete power.
The Death of Hindenburg, 1934
Explain why Hitler was able to gain control of Germany by 1934.