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Gender and Gender Identity Development

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Kendall Willie

on 1 November 2012

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Transcript of Gender and Gender Identity Development

Gender and Gender Identity Development Definitions Sex: determined biologically
Gender: culturally shaped differences of expression (masculine v. feminine)
Gender Identity: the gender an individual identifies with (man v female), develops in early childhood
Gender Role: the qualities one is “expected” to portray (masculine v. feminine)
Cisgender: an individual's sex and gender agree, “traditionally gendered”
Transgender: an individual identifies with a gender not of of their sex Lev's Binary Model Gender identity model where elements align and each element leads to the next
Two paths Bem Sex Role Inventory measures masculinity and femininity
masculine and feminine traits are not to be viewed as opposites but rather on a high and low scale Bem’s Gender Schema Theory how an individual cognitively frames their gender identity Bilodeau’s Transgender Identity
Development Theory 1. Evidence of desire or insistence to be of the other sex
2. Evidence of discomfort with one’s own sex
3. Individual is not intersex (hermaphroditism)
4. Evidence of distress with functioning successfully (occupationally, societally, etc) A unified gender identity theory is not needed among college students. Lev's Alternative Model Elements are on a continuum
and interact with one another
rather than by causation. Allows change over time. 4 Sex Role Type Outcomes 1. Masculine 2. Feminine
3. Androgynous 4. Undifferentiated "Sex-Typed" v. "Cross-Sex-Typed"
Does not determine cisgender or transgender
A means to how an individual develops their gender schema 3 Key Findings that Influence an Individual’s Gender Schema 1. Child learns societal definitions of “maleness” and “femaleness”
2. Child can organize things in gender based categories
3. Individuals construct their self concept within these categories "Gender Identity Disorder" Criteria: 1. Exiting a traditionally gendered identity
2. Developing a personal transgender identity
3. Developing transgender social identity
4. Becoming a transgender offspring
5. Developing transgender intimacy status
6. Entering a transgender community Critiques:
Bem suggested that masculinity and femininity should not be measured against one another.
Gender Identity does not determine sexual orientation. Critique: No evidence of gender schemas of transgender students Critique: Transgender identity is based off of small samples Critique:
Gender bias in academic departments and career choice
· Positive reinforcement from conformity to expected gender norms
· Women have higher self efficacy in sex-typed careers than in cross-sex-typed
Transgender Students
· Labeling as Gender Identity Disorder
· “Genderism” in athletic teams, campus activities, public facilities, and dorm assignment Applications of
Higher Education Providing programs, services, and policies that address unseen operations of gender Detailed attention for trans gender students Woman's and gender studies
Bem's Sex Role Inventory
Role models/peer support Ethical Implications Increase awareness
Support services
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