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on 5 March 2017

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Transcript of Copy of AHMAD IBN MAJID

One of the greatest and most illustrious Arab navigators of all times, Ahmad Ibn Majid gained fame in the West as the man who guided Vasco da Gama to find his way from the east coast of Africa to India around the Cape of Good Hope. His wide knowledge of the seas greatly impressed the Portuguese and, in their writings, they referred to him as the "Master of Astrological Navigation."
Ahmed's birth
Shihab al-Din Ahmad ibn Majid al-Najdi, commonly known as Ibn Majid. He became renowned during the last half of the 15th century. However, he spent most of his life in Muscat, which he described as the most well known port in the world of his era.
He was a Muslim Arab, navigator, cartographer, and author; born to a famous family of seafarers around 824 AH/1421 CE, in Julphar which is one of the seven emirates of the UAE. Which is now known as Ras Al Khaimah. His father was a famous navigator, so he liked seafaring and navigation in his childhood.
Ahmed bin Majid’s efforts in the mid-15th century helped the Portuguese navigator Vasco da Gama in completing the first all water trade route between Europe and India by using an Arab map then unknown to European sailors. He guided da Gama when the king of Malindi asked him to do it as a favour and he did it to honour the king and as a discovery voyage. Ibn Majid was a very devout Muslim, which meant he adhered to the teachings of Islam, and that included no consumption of alcohol. It shows in his writings:
“A teacher – the Captain or Commander of the ship – must be pious and just, never oppressive, always obedient to Allah, properly mindful of Allah in all his actions.”
Ahmed bin Majid and Vasco da Gama
The End
So great was Ibn Majid's renown as an expert on the seas that more than 350 years after his death, Sir Richard Burton, when sailing in a ship out of Aden in 1854, witnessed sailors praying in his honour. A pioneer in the realm of navigation, his name is, and will remain, the pride of all ocean navigators. When he was gone, Arab navigational skills passed on to the Portuguese, and others, but before this happened, the Arabs had contributed much to world geography, navigation and trade.
Ahmed Bin Majed
"Lion of the sea"

Ahmed's birth
His inventions and books
Ahmed bin Majid and Vasco da Gama
The conclusion
The resources
The introduction
The index
His inventions and books
Ibn Majid’s contributions to Navigation are numerous, his inventions, and innovations on the tools of the trade changed the way navigators worked forever and became the standard; his book Kitab al-Fawa’id fi Usul ‘Ilm al-Bahr wa ’l-Qawa’id (Book of Useful Information on the Principles and Rules of Navigation), written around 1490, considered to be his most important work, is a navigation encyclopaedia, describing the history and basic principles of navigation, lunar mansions, rhumb lines, the difference between coastal and open-sea sailing, the locations of ports from East Africa to Indonesia, star positions, accounts of the monsoon and other seasonal winds, typhoons and other topics for professional navigators. He drew from his own experience and that of his father, also a famous navigator, and the lore of generations of Indian Ocean sailors.
What made Ahmad ibn Majid far superior to a lot of navigators and sailors of his day is that he was not just a navigator, he was a very learned navigator, and from his writings we know that he was a polyglot who knew Tamil, East African, Persian, as well as Arabic. He wrote about geography, religion, history, literature, and lineages. He wrote over 34 poems and prose about the science of navigation with about 4,603 verses. He was also an accomplished cartographer.
Ahmed Bin Majid, The Shooting Star and The Lion of the Sea helped the sailors around the world by his achievements. His books, charts, and maps guided sailors for years, and his improvements on nautical tools and nautical inventions transformed how sailors navigated the seven seas forever.
The conclusion
Done by :
Ahmed Reda
Grade and section :
12 s / 1
Supervised by :
Mr. Benjamen Barnett
the earliest surviving Portuguese mariner’s compass, made in 1711 by Jose de Costa Miranda.
Determing Latitude using "Fingers"
This model of a mariner using a kamal shows him holding the knotted rope in his teeth. The knots were a system by which the navigator could keep the wooden card at a distance from his eyes that corresponded to the latitude of ports and islands
The resources
1) http://en.wikipedia.org
2) http://www.alrahalah.com
3) http://www.saudiaramcoworld.com
4) http://portugal-uae.blogspot.ae
5) http://everything2.com
Full transcript