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Chocolate: "Food of the Gods"

Food Science and Technology Presentation
by

Armando Garcia Llanos

on 27 February 2013

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Transcript of Chocolate: "Food of the Gods"

Cocoa Farming Chocolate Chocolate Origin Theobroma cacao
"Food of the Gods" Harvesting Cocoa 1) Plucking and opening the Pods

2) Fermenting the cocoa seeds

3) Drying the cocoa seeds Problems with Cocoa Production and its Consequences "The Dark Side of Chocolate"
Child Labor/slavery? Infection of the chocolate (Theobroma cacao) tree and pods by cacao pathogens Moniliophthora (Crinipellis) perniciosa and Moniliophthora roreri. a. Witches’ broom of plant stems caused by M. perniciosa infection. b. Chocolate pods and seeds infected with M. perniciosa. c, d. Frosty pod rot caused by M. roreri on pods and seeds. Photos from the internet. Consumer Preference America’s Favorite Chocolate Brands Snickers
M&Ms
Reese’s
Hershey’s
Kit Kat
Twix
3 Muskateers
Milky Way
Hershey’s Cookies ‘n’ Crème
Peter Paul Almond Joy *Antioxidant & Antiplatelet
*Dark chocolate increases insulin sensitivity < decreases BP
*As Medicine? Nutrition of Chocolates Variety of Chocolates Process!
Most of the infections are killed off during the chocolate processing
Storage
Also prevents chocolate bloom
Kept in areas free from foreign odors
Air conditioned to 65-68 C
Relative humidity below 50%
*Do not store in refrigerator due to moisture build up and “sugar” bloom promotion! Safety: how to prevent? Cocoa Liquor! Grinding: Make cocoa particles small enough to be used in chocolate.
Cocoa liquor is made! (essentially cocoa solid suspended in cocoa butter)
 
Pressing: Important for the money.
Extract out as much cocoa butter from the cocoa solid.
Cocoa powder also results
Can be further processed via Dutching. Grinding and Pressing
Roasting the Cacao-> flavor development

Grind the Cacao -> chocolate liquor* for chocolate
All chocolate’s must include one thing: Chocolate liquor in the USA.
Definitions vary!
Pressing the chocolate liquor-> cocoa butter for profit Key steps in chocolate processing! Mycobiota of cocoa: from farm to chocolate.
Marina V. Copetti, Beatriz T. Iamanaka, Jens C. Frisvad, José L. Pereira, Marta H. Taniwaki
Food Microbiol. 2011 December; 28(8): 1499–1504. Published online 2011 August 12. doi: 10.1016/j.fm.2011.08.005 Lead contamination.
shipping of those beans and/or the manufacturing of cocoa and chocolate products.
Ochratoxin A and Aflatoxin- Aspergillus and Penicillium produced
Improper storage
Salmonella
Before entering factory Safety: chocolate risks? Conching
for flavor development and apparently antioxidant retention!
This is the mixing of cocoa butter into the chocolate to distribute the butter evenly onto the particles; heat is produced from the friction which motivates volatile molecules, acids, and oxidation to promote flavor! Key steps in chocolate manufacturing Change the flavor precursors into chocolate tasting chemicals!
Time roasted is dependent on the final use of the chocolate.
Shorter time for use in fondant coating but longer for use as an alkalized cocoa powder.
Kill off any microbial contaminants (like salmonellae) from the drying process.
Critical control point!
Allows for the cocoa nib to be easily
extracted from the shell. Roasting Improves texture
Improves sheen
Improves snap Tempering
the controlled manipulation of temperature in means of controlled crystallization of the cocoa butter to occur. Key steps in chocolate manufacturing http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/11_10/b4218021563564.htm Use of vegetable oils Incorporation of air Size reduction Cutting costs in the industry Photo from http://www.revolutionfood.co.nz/revolution-lounge/antioxidants-longevity/
Reference: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15755830
Reference:http://intl.jacn.org/content/20/suppl_5/436S.full http://blog.caputosdeli.com/the-fine-chocolate-experience-infographic/ http://www.wisegeek.org/what-is-unique-about-belgian-chocolate.htm# Exotic Chocolates Everyday Chocolates http://worldcocoafoundation.org/ Fair Trade Chocolates Madécasse Chocolate
Theo Chocolate
Divine Chocolate
Taza Chocolate
CocoaVino
Alter Eco Chocolates
Himilania Choclate
Sweetriot Chocolates Yunshi Dai, Armando Garcia-Llanos, Victoria Hahn, Grace Lau Labeling

Dark Chocolate no less than 15% by wt. of chocolate liquor
less than 12% by wt. of total milk solids

Milk Chocolate no less than 10% by wt. of chocolate liquor
no less than 3.39% by wt. of milkfat

White Chocolate no less than 20% by wt. of cacao fat
no less than 14% by wt. of milk solids


"Cacao fat, as one of the signature characteristics of the product, will remain a principal component of standardized chocolate.“----FDA


Reference: http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?CFRPart=163 Regulations of Chocolates Source: http://247wallst.com/2012/04/05/americas-favorite-chocolate-brands/3/ Thank You http://exhibits.mannlib.cornell.edu/chocolate/ http://www.sfu.ca/geog351fall03/groups-webpages/gp8/prod/prod.html
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