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Innovation/Infrastructure

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Molly Sheehan

on 2 May 2013

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Transcript of Innovation/Infrastructure

* Railroad loses business GO MONOPOLY Infrastructure and Innovation Edition Take a journey through U.S. innovation and infrastructure! MONOPOLY Inventions of the 20s Inventions of the 20s Radio Could transport messages across seas Knit families together Phonograph Transformed music business Declined in popularity because of the radio Automobiles
Created many jobs
Spurred growth of cities, highways, suburbs
Hurt railroad industry
Henry Ford and the "Model T," mastered assembly line Why was the radio SO important? Who did it "popularize"? Let's start the journey through infrastructure and innovation in the U.S. Effects of the Airplane HUGE new industry New era of war-aerial bombs = Charles Lindbergh
First solo flight across the Atlantic, NY to Paris + Airplane Railroad business decreases Panama Canal New Deal Programs WWII--1960
Aerospace Advancements WWII--1960
Nuclear Advancements Modern America Infrastructure Medical Advancements Medical Advancements Medical Advancements Satellites Internet Basic Internet Timeline INFRASTRUCTURE INNOVATION Modern America Infrastructure The Jet Age Amtrak Rapid Transit Worksheet Activity Proposal for Highway System Design and Standards Highway Funding Interstate Highway Act of 1956 Effects of the Highway ACTIVITY Built in 1904
Needed a way to get from Atlantic to Pacific
Trade and defense
1977--Carter signs treaty giving control to Panama, as long as it remains neutral
1999--Panama gains full control of canal Tennessee Valley Authority
Integrated resource management
Built dams--created hydroelectric power
Managed natural resources TVA PWA Spent over $4 billion on public buildings, highways, parkways,etc.
Most common projects were streets and highways WPA Built public roads, airports, and buildings Employed millions of people REA Brought electricity to rural areas Initially made to help farmers be more productive Longer light = more work done Public Works Administration Works Progress Administration Rural Electrification Administration WWII--1960
Technological Advancements Transistor Radio (1948)
Sparked a revolution in electronics
Small size made music portable and
changed listening habits Mainframe Computers (1950s)
New machines were massive, with miles of wiring
Big step for "information age" and telecommunication
Used for mass data processing Television
Invented in 1920s, increased popularity in 1950s
Important aspect of new leisurely lifestyle
Expanded news, politics, entertainment Strategic Air Command
Created between WWI and WWII
Built up by Eisenhower in 1950s
Controlled bomber aircrafts, nuclear arsenal, and aerial refueling




Expanding passenger airline business
First large passenger jet by Boeing Company in 1957






Air Force One
First presidential jet during Eisenhower administration, 1959 Hydrogen bomb
Effort to rival the soviet's nuclear weaponry
Led by Atomic Energy Commission, including Einstein and Oppenheimer
1,000 times more powerful than the atomic bomb Cancer Research
American Cancer Society - 1913
Radiology, surgery, and chemotherapy become standard treatments Polio Vaccine
Massive polio outbreaks post-WWII
Frightened American public
Jonas Salk creates vaccine, released by 1955
Millions line up for vaccination
One of first vaccines, now 14 required Lasers
First functioning laser in California, 1960
Applied to medicine--surgery, optometry, cancerous cells Neuroscience
1972, CAT scan is introduced
MRI available by 1980s
Medical imaging and diagnosis Widespread information infrastructure
Creates cyber interdependency
Commission by U.S. Air Force to maintain control after nuclear attack
DARPA--Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency
Part of U.S. Dept. of Defense
1969--first message sent via ARPANET from UCLA to Stanford
Eventually evolved as modern internet UCLA team that established the first internet connection 1958 - Today
Revolutionized air travel Peak time for aircraft innovation
Jet technology - airlines can reduce costs
End to gov't regulation of airlines
More competition, some thrive and some fail
"Glass cockpit" - computer monitors over gauges and switches Pan Am was one airline that lost business after deregulation, and quit all flights by 1991. Convenient intercity passenger rail service Gained popularity in 1980s
Rail Passenger Service Act--nationalized passenger rails
Increase rail travel over automobile and plane travel
1988 - Amtrak carried more passengers from D.C. to NY than all airlines combined Underground subways, elevated railways, metro rail systems Rebirth of rail transit in 1970s
Very expensive - millions of federal aid dollars
Mass transit use increases after awe of automobile subsides How How did these technology advancements affect news distribution? DNA Research
Structure discovered by Watson and Crick, 1953
Let to better understanding of cancer, neurology, and genetic diseases

Human Genome Project
Sequence of all genes within a set of human DNA
Human genome complete in 2003 What discovery was made by scientists Watson and Crick to further the
field of medicine? America responds to Russia's Sputnik
1958, Explorer 1 is launched
First Earth satellite from U.S.
Stayed in orbit for 12 years, before falling into Pacific Ocean
Cold War/Space Race begins How might the internet be used as defense? How did these new public transportation systems accommodate white flight? What is the current status of America's infrastructure system? What are some examples of failing infrastructure? Why is this happening to America? What will our infrastructure look like in 2050? What positive effects would come from the interstate system? 1930-1970--investment in
infrastructure increased
Meet demographic need--in 1950s & 60s, infrastructure grew with the educational demands of the baby boom generation
Intestate and space program growth also required more funds
New technology = more expensive to implement 1970-Today--investment in infrastructure
at an all-time low
U.S. wealth used more for consumption than repairs of aging infrastructure
Lack of investment in the future, plus federal budget cuts
By 1990s--realization that funds are needed for infrastructure updates and additions Highway Proposal Until the 1930s, states built roads
Federal government looked to create national transportation system National Interregional Highway Committee Highway building would create more jobs for the unemployed Investigated need for limited highway system Recommended 39,000 miles to accommodate traffic for 20 years Federal funding for infrastructure peaked in the 1950s, with the implementation of the interstate highway system. GDP is the market value of all goods and services produced within the U.S. for a given year. Initial acts divided the "Highway Community"--Urban and rural areas battle for priority
Provided for 40,000 miles of interstate
Worked with states and major cities to see which routes should be taken Construction Begins
August 1947--37,680 miles were officially designated
Building started SLOWLY
Many didn't want to pull from Federal funds just to build roads
Big cities used toll roads when Federal funds weren't enough
Realized a new system was needed for efficient highway construction Created by Clay Committee--in charge of developing finance plans for the road system
Provided for 41,000 miles and $25 billion to complete project
Funds initially decided by mileage, land area, and population
Later, funds apportioned by "Cost to Complete" basis Created many construction jobs
Increased suburbanization
Benefited trucking, automobile, oil, and travel industries
Took business from railroads and passenger trains
Intensified air quality and energy consumption issues
Decreased business in urban cities--more people shop in suburbs Besides basic transportation, how did Eisenhower intend to use the highway system? Interstate Highway Act of 1956 News and entertainment Computers
Academic use in 1970s, too expensive for personal use
1976—Apple I Computer sold by Jobs & Wozniak
1980s—home computers become more popular
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