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Janessa Walters

on 19 January 2015

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Transcript of Biodiversity

Biodiversity is the degree of life at all levels of biological organization including species populations, communities and ecosystems.
Genetic Diversity
Genetic Diversity refers to the number of different genes for given traits in the gene pool of a species. A high level of genetic diversity is important because it serves as a way for populations to evolve and adapt to the changing environments. With more variation in a population, it is more likely that some of the individuals will have variations of genes for given traits suited for that environment, and it is more likely that the species will survive and reproduce.

An example of a species that suffers from low genetic diversity is the Northern Elephant Seal. Dominant Bulls are able to mate with a large number of females. With so many of the offspring descended from one male, genetic diversity is limited. This makes the species more vulnerable to diseases and genetic mutations when rapid changes occurs.
Species Diversity
Species diversity is a measure of the diversity within an ecological community that incorporates both species richness and the evenness of species abundances.

Examples of services provided by one species for another.
1. Impala and oxpecker- the oxpeckers eat the ticks that feed off of the impala.

2. Cleaner fish provide other fish with removing dead skin
3. Old World Clover sticks to animals fur, and the animals will disperse the seeds.
4. Ocellaris clownfish dwell among the tentacles of Ritteri sea anemone
5. The Shrimp will dig a burrow and both the shrimp and goby fish will live together. The goby will warn the shrimp of predators.
Ecosystem Diversity
Ecosystem Diversity refers to the variety of different habitats in a particular area, the various species that live in those habitats, and the interactions that connect them.
Support Services- services that are necessary for the production of all other ecosystem services.
ex. nutrient recycling

Provisionary Services-products obtained from ecosystems.
ex. food, crops and spices

Regulatory Services- benefits obtained from the regulation of ecosystem processess.
ex. purifications of water and air

Cultural Services- Nonmaterial benefits people obtain from ecosystems.
ex.science and education
What ensures a diverse ecosystem?

The current extinction rate is approximately 100 extinctions per million species per year.
An example of a species that has recently become extinct is the golden toad. It last bred in normal numbers in 1987. In 1987, due to erratic weather, the pools dried up before the larva had matured.
Top five ways humans are negatively impacting the environment
Deforestation is clearing Earths forests on a massive scale, which is damaging the quality of the land. The biggest impact of deforestation is the loss of habitat for lots of species. Trees also play a role in absorbing greenhouse gasses, with fewer trees, larger amounts of greenhouse gasses will enter the atmosphere. Cutting down trees can also lead to severe temperature swings, which can harm many plants and animals.
An ecosystem with a variety of mirco-habitats can support a greater diversity of species
Desertification is the process by which fertile land becomes a desert. The negative impacts of desertification are, the soil becomes unusable, vegation is damaged, food loss, and it can also cause flooding and dust storms.
Global Warming
Global Warming is a gradual increase in the overall temperature of the earth's atmosphere. Global warming is melting the glaciers, causing erratic weather patterns, causing health problems, and some wildlife is becoming extinct.
Invasive Species
Invasive species are organisms (plant, animal, fungus, or bacterium) that are not native and have negative effects on our economy, our environment, or our health. Invasive species often out-compete native plant and animal species for food water and space.
Zebra Muscle
Over harvesting
Over harvesting is taking more from the land than it can replace. It is threatening the biodiversity, because it is eliminating some species.
Climate Change
The climate in the Arctic is changing. The temperature is increasing, which is melting glaciers, sea ice, and permafrost. Precipitation is also increasing. The rising sea levels shows evidence that the Arctic is warming.

The Arctic warming will affect the rest of the planet, the Arctic provides us with fish and wildlife. The climate change in the Arctic may cause the wildlife to deplete, this is affecting commercial fishing. The Arctic warming may also cause flooding.

Climate change is expected to cause the expansion of forests into the Arctic tundra, and of tundra into polar deserts. The Tundra is expected to become much smaller, reducing the breeding area of many species. Arctic vegetation zones are likely to shift, causing wide-ranging impacts.

The Arctic warming is causing many species habitats to change. Many species rely on sea ice to travel and hunt for food. With the sea ice melting, many animals, like the polar bear, are finding it hard to catch food and survive. Also, ice-dependent seal species are likely to have difficulty adapting to ice-free summers. With the Arctic warming, it may cause many Arctic species to become extinct.
A program designed to conserve biodiversity in Canada is Earth Rangers
White-tailed Deer
Scientific Name: Odocoileus virginianus
Meaning-from the Greek odous, meaning “tooth,” and
virginianus—Latin for “of Virginia,” referring to the point of collection of the type specimen.
Taxonomy Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Artiodactyla
Family: Cervidae
Genus: Odocoileus
Species: Virginianus

History: Over time, deer populations have fluctuated. The first big decline was because of the fur trade. Native Americans killed around 5 million deer per year. In the early 1800s, due to a decline in fur sales, populations were on the rise again. Today, the whitetail deer, is the most widespread deer in the world.
The most closely related species is a Mule Deer- Odocoileus hemionus
Geographic range- Western North America, Rocky Mountain region of North America
Habitat-They seek shelter among evergreen trees and shrubs
Geographic Range of Whitetail Deer- Whitetail deer live in most of southern Canada and all of the mainland United States except two or three states in the west.

Habitat- Whitetail deer are able to survive in a variety of habitats, the big woods of northern Maine, deep saw grass and hammock swamps of Florida. They also live in farmlands, brushy areas and areas of the West. The ideal Whitetail deer habitat would contain dense thickets and edges.

-a recurrent way of acting by an individual or group toward a given object or in a given situation.

Whitetail deer are the most nervous and shy deer. They wave their tails from side to side when they are startled. They are extremely agile. Whitetail deers are very careful to keep their offspring hidden from predators. Whitetail deer are not vocal, young fawns sometime bleat. Whitetail deer don't migrate to a winter range.
Behavioural Patterns
Communication and Perception
-is the process of assessing information in your surroundings

White-tailed deer have scent glands between the two parts of the hoof on all four feet, outside of each leg, and on the inside of each leg. Scents from these glands are used to communicate with other deer. White-tailed deer produce several types of vocalizations like, grunts, wheezes, and bleats. These sounds, and other sounds and postures, are used to communicate with other deers.
Feeding Habits
-the way a person or group eats,
Whitetail deers eat a variety of vegetation, depending on what is available. They eat buds and twigs of maple, sassafras, aspen and birch. Various tough shrubs may be the main components of a whitetail's diet.
Life Cycle
-the series of changes in the life of an organism, including reproduction
The average whitetail deer lives about 2-3 years. The maximum lifespan is 20 years, few live more than 10 years. Most whitetail deer (mostly males) mate when they are 2, some females mate as young as seven months. Females generally stay with their mothers for two years, but males leave the group within the first year.
- movement or the ability to move from one place to another
A Whitetail deers top speed is between 35 to 40 miles per hour. They have to ability to jump high, and jump over fallen trees. When a deer cannot outrun an enemy, it goes into water to escape. Deers swim well and at a good pace.
-the study of the forms of things
Their head and body length is 150 to 200 cm, their tail length is 10 to 28 cm. Males have antlers which are shed from January to March and grow out again in April or May. Whitetail deer have good eyesight and acute hearing, but they depend mainly on their sense of smell to detect danger.
Predation Strategy
-strategies for getting away from predators
White-tailed deer have good eyesight and acute hearing, but depend on their sense of smell to detect danger. They use their ability to run and bound quickly through vegetation to escape danger. White-tailed deer are preyed on by large predators such as humans, wolves, mountain lions, bears, and coyotes.
Reproductive Strategies
- are structural, functional and behavioural adaptations that improve the chances of fertilization and/or increase the survival rate.
The scent glands between the two parts of the hoof on all four feet, on the outside and inside on each leg, are used to communicate with other deer and secretions become especially strong during the mating season. They attract mates using the scents.
Social Behaviour
-behaviour taking place between members of the same species.
Social hierarchies are clear when deer are in herds, with rank determined by sex, age, and size. The largest males are dominant, followed in rank by adult females. Hierarchies determine access to food, especially when food is limited. They use their scents to communicate with each other.
Survival Strategies
- strategies that help you survive.
Whitetail deer use their running skills when trying to escape from their predators. If they can't escape them by running, they will use water to swim away. They eat a wide variety of vegetation, they eat whatever is available at that time of the year.
Ecosystem Role
White-tailed deer greatly influence the composition of plant communities through grazing. In winter, white-tailed deer can be responsible for killing a large number of trees. White-tailed deer are important prey animals for many of large predators.
Differences between Mule Deer and Whitetail Deer
The mule deer's face is mostly white from the nose to the eyes, but the whitetail’s face is mostly brown like the rest of their fur.

Mule Deer also usually weight more, and are larger.

Also, the points on a mule buck’s antlers will split in two directions, grow, split again. A whitetail buck’s antler points will all grow off of one main stem.
Works Cited

"Causes and Effects of Desertification." Causes and Effects of Desertification. Web. 18 Jan. 2015. <http://desertificationb.tripod.com/id3.html>.

"Environment Facts, Environment Science, Global Warming, Natural Disasters, Ecosystems, Green Living - National Geographic." National Geographic. Web. 18 Jan. 2015. <http://environment.nationalgeographic.com/environment>.

"Mutualism (biology)." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation. Web. 18 Jan. 2015. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mutualism_(biology)>.

"Odocoileus Virginianus (white-tailed Deer)." Animal Diversity Web. Web. 18 Jan. 2015. <http://animaldiversity.org/accounts/Odocoileus_virginianus/#predation>.

"Population Bottleneck." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation. Web. 18 Jan. 2015. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Population_bottleneck>.

"The Difference Between Mule and Whitetail Deer." Windmill 12. 18 July 2012. Web. 18 Jan. 2015. <http://windmill12.com/2012/07/18/the-difference-between-mule-and-whitetail-deer/>.

All images were taken from google

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By: Janessa Walters

Website that has the noise's that Whitetail's make
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