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Year 10 science rocket project
Transcript of Year 10 science rocket project
By Aston Key
Newton's 3rd law
"For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction."
Law 3 explained
Newton's third law states that as an object there is a reaction force that is equal in size, but opposite in direction. That is to say that whenever an object pushes another object it gets pushed back in the opposite direction equally hard. For example when a rocket pushes down on the ground with the force of its powerful engines, and the reaction is that the ground pushes the rocket upwards with an equal force.
Who was Issac Newton?
Sir Isaac Newton was an English physicist and mathematician who famously discovered gravity and the laws of motion when an apple fell from a tree and hit him on the head.
Newton's first law
"Every object in a state of uniform motion tends to remain in that state of motion unless an external force is applied to it."
Law 1 explained
Newton's first law states that an object at rest tends to stay at rest, and an object in motion tends to stay in motion, with the same direction and speed. Motion or lack of motion can't change without an unbalanced force acting. If nothing is happening to you, and nothing does happen, you will never go anywhere. If you're going in a specific direction, unless something happens to you, you will always go in that direction. Just say you roll a ball on the ground, that ball will roll forever unless a force acts upon it, such as gravity or friction slowing the ball and eventually stopping it. But if you were to throw a ball in outer space, the ball would go in the same direction at the same speed forever because there are no forces acting upon it.
Newton's 2nd Law
"The relationship between an object's mass m, its acceleration a, and the applied force F is F = ma. Acceleration and force are vectors (as indicated by their symbols being displayed in slant bold font); in this law the direction of the force vector is the same as the direction of the acceleration vector."
Law 2 explained
Newton's second law portrays that the behavior of objects are not balanced. The second law states that the acceleration of an object is dependent upon two variables - the force acting upon the object and the mass of the object. The acceleration of an object depends directly upon the force acting upon the object, and inversely upon the mass of the object. Shown mathematically as 'F=ma' or 'Force= Mass multiplied by acceleration'. As the force acting upon an object is increased, the acceleration of the object is increased. As the mass of an object is increased, the acceleration of the object is decreased. For example if you were to kick a soccer ball with 0.5kg mass and kick it with 25 newtons of net force then the acceleration would be 50m/s/s, but if you were to kick a truck with a mass of 1000kg with the same force then the acceleration would only be 0.025 m/s/s, which is greatly less than kicking the soccer ball because the mass of the object having the force acting upon it is greatly more.
How do these relate to our rockets?
Each one of Newton's laws apply to our rocket launch and flight.
Law 1 in rocket launch
Newton's first law is present during the rocket flight because at the start before the rocket took off when it was just sitting there, it would have stayed there forever without a force being applied onto it, this time it was an engine firing lifting the rocket. And Once launched the rocket would have kept going up in the same direction at the same speed forever if another force hadn't stopped it and brought it back to ground, this time that force was gravity.
Law 2 applied on our rocket launch.
Newton's second law states that as an objects mass decreases the net force needed to give it a greater acceleration is also decreased. This is shown in our rocket launch when the rocket has just taken off and burns through fuel lessening the mass of the rocket therefore needing less thrust to keep it in the air.
Law 3 applied on our rocket launch
Newton's third law applies to our rocket launch because when the engine is ignited the net forced is pushed into the ground it creates an equal and opposite force pushing the rocket upwards into the sky.