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The Roaring Twenties
Transcript of The Roaring Twenties
Bold use of zigzags/steps
WW1 benefited American business. Factory production had risen very sharply to meet the needs of the war. The US was able to capture markets that used to buy goods from Europe. Once the war had ended, these countries continued to buy American goods.
The Economic Boom
The Bee's Knees of the 1920s
By Mallika Madhok
Table of Contents
2) The Boom
The 1920s were an age of dramatic social and political change. This was the first time that more Americans lived in cities than on farms. The nation’s total wealth more than doubled between 1920 and 1929. The economy was known to be booming. People around the US bought the same goods (thanks to nationwide advertising and the rapid spread of chain stores), listened to the same music, did the same dances and even developed some slang! For a bunch of young people in the nation’s big cities, the 1920s were roaring indeed.
The 1920s were an era of CHANGE.
How it Happened
America’s economy recovered quickly after WW1
The government at the time was Republican, and favored ‘big business’
After the war the government followed the policy of isolationism (didn't get involved in the affairs of other nations) and only focused on the USA's affairs
The economy was booming by the mid 20s
What Lead to the Boom
US industry had been boosted by the war as Europe was short of goods
Republican government’s policy of "laissez-faire" (people should be able to do what they want without interference)
Mass production of new technology - cars, radios, refrigerators etc.
Hire purchase - buyers could buy things in regular installments while enjoying the use of it. This raised consumer expenditure
(1920 - 1930)
The twenties were a time of great prosperity in terms of technology and many great innovations came from this time.
People who were illiterate we able to find out news.
The radio was seen as the greatest communication innovation of the 1920s.
People who lived in isolated areas were now able to stay connected to the rest of the country.
The first car radio was invented by Paul Gavin in 1929.
The first radio broadcast was on November 2, 1920.
The radio was used for commercials and advertisements for consumer products.
Radios were affordable for everyone.
Politicians were able to make broadcasts on the radio which allowed them to reach people all around the world without the travel that would have been previously required.
Telephones & Televisions
In 1927, the president of the American Telephone and Telegraph Company from New York was able to see Mr. Hoover (self-made millionaire in the mining industry and soon-to-be president of the US) 200 miles away in Washington as they talked. This showed the world that electricity was for sound as well as sight.
This technology would help lead to the creation of the television.
In 1929, aerial television was tried for the first time with a broadcast made from an airplane.
This new technology was applied in a manner similar to that of a video phone.
A technology existed that allowed pictures to be sent over the phone (similar to fax) and the next step was to send moving pictures.
The first dial phones appeared in the twenties.
Cars enabled people to go faster and farther.
They became more comfortable.
Companies began making them in different colors to be more appealing to women.
Roads were improved to accommodate cars.
Ford's Model-T car allowed families of lower incomes to get a car due to its affordability.
Americans were then able to travel by automobiles daily, something that had only been available to the rich in the past.
Henry Ford's creation of the assembly line allowed cars to be made quickly and efficiently.
Assembly line of cars
Airplanes started to be used for passenger transport.
The first pop-up toaster was invented by Charles Strite in 1921.
Jacob Shick invented the first electric razor in 1928.
A process for frozen food was invented in 1925 by Clarence Birdseye.
Richard Goddard launched the first liquid-fueled rocket in 1926.
The first air-conditioner for consumer use was made in 1928.
In 1923, Frigidaire released the first self-contained refrigerator but General Electric's "Monitor Top" was the first widely used.
Though washing machines had been invented in the 1800s, they were greatly improved in the 1920s and became more affordable meaning that housewives everywhere had an easier time doing laundry.
Crazes during the 1920s
Marathon dancing was a craze when people would dance for an extended amount of time.
A craze is an enthusiasm for a particular activity or object which is usually popular for a limited amount of time. These are a few crazes and fads from the 1920s.
Mah Jong is a chinese tile game. It is similar to the Western card game rummy.
It was introduced to the USA in 1920s, the first ever Mah Jong set was sold by Abercrombie & Fitch.
Crossword puzzles are word games.
When they were first introduced, apparently
a man shot his wife because she wouldn't help with the puzzle. Another man committed suicide and left a note in a form of a crossword puzzle.
Crossword puzzles were first introduced in 1913 by the New York World newspaper.
Flagpole sitting was basically when people used to sit on a flagpole to see how long they could sit on it. It was an endurance test.
The record is 439 days 11 hours and 6 minutes.
The fad lasted from 1924 - 1929.
Trending sports during the 1920s:
Apr. 18, 1923 - Yankee Stadium opens in New York
Sept. 30, 1927 - Babe Ruth hits 60th home run
Feb. 23, 1929 - Ty Cobb breaks Honus Wagner's record for career hits
1920 - Babe Ruth traded to Red Sox
American Football Facts
Aug. 20, 1920 - The NFL is set up
Originated in Ohio
Used leather helmets
No upper body padding
The decade of the 1920s is often referred to as the Golden Age of Sports.
Black people living in the South of the US migrated to the North due to racism in the South. There was an abundance of blacks in the North, and with them, they brought jazz music.
The period of the 1920s was also called the "Jazz Age”. During this decade, there was a change in cultural structure. Jazz was introduced by African Americans which also suggests that the jazz age was an era of cultural acceptance.
How and When it Started
Originated from New Orleans
This music traveled to other states and gained popularity
Many people had gotten together to form jazz bands and many performed solo to showcase their talent
Effect on American Culture
The music stirred up rebellion among the people. Women began to dress in a more revealing manner, people started partying, etc. This was a huge change for people in those times.
Jazz was viewed as the "devil's music". It was looked down upon by the older generations. Jazz composer Jelly Role Martin claimed that when his grandfather heard him playing jazz music, he said he had "disgraced his family" and had forbidden him from living in the same house as him.
Jazz, Jazz, Jazz....
Jazz is the first American music style to influence music worldwide.
Typical instruments used in jazz include the piano, saxophone, trumpet, and the clarinet.
The piano is the most popular and common instrument in jazz music.
Famous Jazz Musicians
-A.K.A. Satchmo or Pops
-Brought about jazz music to the USA
-Greatest jazz musician of all time
-From New Orleans
-Renown trumpet player and singer
Joe "King" Oliver
-One of the most significant figures in the early years of jazz
-Known for his unique ability to make alternations to his cornet's sound
Music became so popular that phonographs (record players) became a necessity to every household.
The music industry was booming during the Roaring Twenties, music sales were prosperous.
Jazz opened up many employment opportunities for musicians.
Two art movements, Art Deco and Surrealism were the most popular art forms of the 1920s.
The movement originated in early 1920s Europe.
Surrealism began with post-WWI European avant-gardes.
It was basically abstract art.
Art Deco: Art + Architecture
Notable Surrealist Artists
Surrealism is associated with Dadaism.
Dadaism started in 1914 during WW1 where artists displayed their hatred towards the propaganda being spread and how the public accepted and promoted it. They illustrated their disgust through disturbing and violent images.
Dadaism then evolved into Surrealism.
Automatic drawing - making random patterns on paper using a drawing tool; used to incorporate randomness and subconsciousness in artwork.
Automatic painting - similar to automatic drawing but with paint instead.
Decalcomania - pressing paint between sheets of paper to create a pattern.
Frottage - using a pencil or other drawing tool and making a rubbing over a textured surface.
Fumage - using the smoke of a candle or kerosene lamp on a piece of paper or canvas to create various impressions.
Grattage - scraping dry paint off canvas to create interesting patterns.
Parsemage - scattering dust from charcoal or colored chalk on the surface of water and then skimming it off by passing a stiff paper or cardboard just under the water's surface.
How did the US economy rise so rapidly?
In the roaring twenties, women changed completely. They smoked, drank, danced, and voted. They had bob-cuts, wore make-up, and went to petting parties. They took risks. They were flappers.
Flappers received the name for the way they danced, flapping their arms like wings.
Wore very generous amounts of makeup
Wore short dresses
Cut their hair (usually into a bob-cut)
Listened to jazz
Went against what the older generation thought was acceptable.
Clara Bow: most famous flapper, whom
every woman looked up to. She was THE "it girl" (ultimate flapper).
A flapper was a young woman that rejected the "normal" female behavior of the 1920s.
The President of Florida University said the low cut gowns and short skirts are "born of the devil and are carrying the present generation to destruction”.
Flapper style lipstick advertisement:
Surrealist techniques include:
Movies became big in business in the 1920s.
Introduction of Sound to Movies
Phonograph + film =
1st version of sound films
First full-length film
The End of Silent Films
Pantomime is OUT!
Talking is IN!
Voice lessons for the silent stars
Hugo - a book-turned-film about silent films
The Rebirth of Silent Films
The Artist - a silent film about silent films
Midnight in Paris
Notable stars of the 1920s:
The Walt Disney Company, in association with Universal Pictures, presents Oswald the Lucky Rabbit.
After losing rights for Oswald to Universal Pictures, animators at Disney created Mickey Mouse.
"Fashion is a form of ugliness so intolerable so intolerable that we have to alter it every six months."
- Oscar Wilde
An ensemble of hats, shoes, stockings, handbags, dresses, and lots of jewelry created a typical outfit for the women of the 20s. They showed much more skin than would have previously been considered appropriate and shoes and stockings very important as they could finally be seen in an outfit.
Skin colored "nude appearance" such as silk, chiffon, and satin were very popular
Makeup: bright lips; rest of the face had a more natural look
"Bob cut hairstyle" to wear hats in more trendy ways
Flapper clothing style was considered very fashionable
Typical 1920s trendy attire:
2-3 buttons and no long tail on the jacket
Pin striped suits
Short pants up to knees, baggy/wide legged trousers called "Oxford bage"
Accessories were pretty important and were said to have ‘made a man’. Ties and bow-ties were a necessary part of a wardrobe and patent leather shoes were the norm. Gloves were optional and hats were a vital part of a wardrobe. But probably the most important rule in fashion for a man during the 20s was that a well-dressed man never left home without a handkerchief tucked neatly into his pocket.