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The Civil War-Chapter 15
Transcript of The Civil War-Chapter 15
Americans against Americans
The South had military advantages, because many of the Nation's officers were Southerners. But, the North also had advantages- they had 110,000 factories, railroad track, more farmland, population, and more resources. The South had many disadvantages on their side, they were outnumbered and less farmland.
North Against South
The border states were the slave states that refused to secede. For example, Delaware had a few enslaved people and its support of the Union was strong. However, states such Maryland, Missouri, and Kentucky favored the South. These states were important to hold on to because Kentucky and Missouri controlled the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers. Unless the Union could keep Maryland, D.C. would be surrounded by the Confederacy
The Border States
Not many states were happy to send troops, in Tennessee the governor said that not one of our men should/will fight against our southern borders. Kentucky ans Missouri replied the same way.
The President's call for troops led for Southern states to secede, Virginia, Arkansas, and North Carolina joined the Confederacy.
Taking Sides in the War
As the war progressed the nation decided to take sides, the North and the South arranged plans to lead them to victory.
Two days after Fort Sumter's surrender, President Lincoln declared rebellion in the South. To put the rebellion to rest Lincoln called 75,000 troops.
Section 1 - The Call to Arms
The Civil War-Chapter 15
During this time many new weapons were created. Such as rifles and cannons could be loaded easier. Ironclads were also brought into the light. They were warships with protective iron plates. The uses of ironclads ended many wooden warships. These ships played a leading role in ending the Union's struggle to gain control of the Mississippi River.
Section 2- Yearly Years of the War
The Northern General Irvin McDowell wanted to turn his men into an effective force. By July northern newspapers demanded the capture of Richmond, to quickly end the war. McDowell's men left their base and marched to Virginia, where about the same number of Confederates waited. The armies clashed along Bull Run, a river. First the Union army pushed forward but the Confederates held firm. The Southern commander was named Stone Wall Jackson.
First Battle of Bull Run
Slowly the battle turned in favor of the Confederates. And the Poorly trained Union army began to panic. The Union arm retreated and the Confederacy was too tired to pursue them.
First Battle of Bull Run (Continued)
The War in the East
After the Union's defeat at Bull Run, Lincoln removed McDowell and replaced him with general McClellan. McClellan was a good organizer, but was overly cautious. He trained his army for months but did not attack. Lincoln was frustrated at that point. When McClellan was finally ready, his 100,000 soldiers went by boat along the Chesapeake bay. But since the General didn't have as many troops as he wanted he retreated. The Union General's troops attacked Lee's army on September 17, the bloodiest day of the Civil War. It was called the battle of Antietam, there was no clear victor but the North claimed victory.
The Battle at Shiloh
McClellan was replaced by General Ulysses Grant. Grant was a poor store clerk, and unlike McClellan he took chances. The battle at Shiloh was an important battle for both sides. The South suffered from 11,000 casualties and the North more than 13,000. During this battle the Union gained control over Western Tennessee and part of the Mississippi River. The Union won this battle and Grant would continue to lead his army .
The Bloodiest day of the Civil War.
The Battle at Shiloh
Section 3- The Emancipation Proclamation
Emancipate means free. Lincoln said his goal was to free and restore the nation, even if this meant having to keep slavery. On January 1st, 1863 he issued the final Emancipation Proclamation. This act freed the slave who were fighting for the Union. He changed the Civil war into a struggle for Freedom.
About 189,000 African american's served in the Union army or the navy. These soldiers earned less pay the white soldiers. They were also forced to fight in all white regiments and many were former slaves. The African Americans were a part of many major battles. Many of them did what they could to her the Union war effort.
Section 4 - The Civil War & American Life
The Civil War not only caused the Nation to divide, but also caused divisions within the North & the South. Many people tried to disrupt was effort and tried to prevent men form joining military forces.
Habeas Corpus: Constitutional protection against unlawful protection.
Desertion was a problem for both sides. many soldiers left their units and went home. to meet the needs of both sides, they established the Draft System- which was a system of required military service.
By Numa Siddiqi
Extra Credit Project
Draft Laws and Economic Strains
Wealthy people had a way to escape fighting. In the South, landowners who had over 20 slaves were not permitted to serve. In the North men had to pay $300 to escape fighting.
Industry boomed as they turned out goods needed in the war. Income tax was a tax on the money people receive. The Union printed about $400 million just to pay off its expenses. Inflation was a general rise in prices.
At least 400 women were disguised as men to fight in the war. Other women became spies behind army lines. When men left for the war, women began to take over the men's work. They also became nurses on the battlefield to help wounded soldiers.
Women in the Civil War
Section 5 - Decisive Battles
After the Union victory at the Battle of Antietam, the war began to go badly for the North. When McClellan failed to pursue Lee's army, Lincoln replaced him with General Ambrose Burnside. The former general was cautious, so Burnside decided to do something bold. Burnside marched his army to Richmond, when the confederate army blocked them, Burnside ordered charge after charge. During this the Union lost about 13,00 and the south about 5,000.
The Confederate victories made Lee bold. He was convinced that a major victory on Union soil would force the North to end the war. When Lee arrived in Gettysburg to buy shoes, but instead gun shots were exchanged. By evening the Confederate army pushed the Union army out of Gettysburg. The Next day 85,000 Union troops faced some 75,000 Confederate troops. The fighting raged through the night. When Lee's army charged powerfully many were killed. The Southern army had lost the fight.
The Battle of Gettysburg
The Fall of Vicksburg
As Lee's shattered army began its retreat from Gettysburg, the South suffered another blow. Vicksburg was surrendered to General Grant. This city was the last city on the Mississippi River that was in confederacy hands. Unable to take the city by force Grant had begun a siege of the city. A siege is an attempt to capture a place by surrounding it with military forces and cutting it off until the people inside surrender. After this battle the entire Mississippi river was under Union control.
The Gettysburg Address
In November 1863, 15,000 people gathered on the Battlefield's of Gettysburg to honor the soldiers who had died there. In what is known as the Gettysburg Address-Lincoln looked ahead to a final Union victory.
Battle at Richmond
In the year of 1864 Lincoln gave Grant command over all Union forces. Grant decided that the Union had to attack Richmond. Grant was unable to break through Lee's army, but he still did not retreat. After seven weeks of fighting both sides lost hundreds on men. In June Grant began a siege, a tactic he used in Vicksburg.
While the battle at Richmond was going on, General Sherman went towards Atlanta. Sherman was a tough general, and he believed in total war. Which was all out attacks destroying the enemy's army, resources, and people's will to fight.
The Confederates could not stop Sherman's advance. So Sherman took over Atlanta and also gave a boost to Lincoln's presidential reelection campaign. In November, Sherman ordered Atlanta burned. He then marched toward the Atlantic Ocean. Along the way, Union troops set fire to buildings, seized crops and livestock, and damaged railroad tracks. Their path of destruction was 60 miles wide.
March to the Sea
The Civil war was the bloodiest conflict the U.S. had ever fought. About 260,000 Confederate soldiers gave their lives and the number of Union soldiers dead were more than 360,000-including 37,000 African Americans. The war had only 2 results. It reunited the Nation and ended slavery.
THE END of the War
Surrender at Appomattox
On April 2, Grant's troops broke through Confederate lines. By evening, Richmond was in Union hands. Lee's army retreated to the town of Appomattox-but on April 9 his escape was cut off. Lee surrendered.
Grant offered Lee generous terms. The confederates had to leave their weapons and leave in peace. As Lee rode off, Union troops started to celebrate. But Grant silenced them saying, "The war is over. The rebels are our countrymen again."