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The impact and effort of e-commerce on organisations and soc

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Nicole Badger

on 8 March 2017

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Transcript of The impact and effort of e-commerce on organisations and soc

The impact and effort of e-commerce on organisations and society
Brick And Click
Examples of successful Brick and Click organisations
Examples of unsuccessful Brick and Click orgnaisations
Security Issues
Key Information
E-Commerce Entities
Social Implications
Payment Systems
For this task I will be speaking about 5 different acts and I will say what the act is, what they cover, how it protects customers buying things online and what companies have to do to make sure that they are following the law.
The Consumer Credit Act 1974 (amended 2006)
This act is legislation that protects any purchases on credit cards or any loan that a consumer may take out. It ensures that the consumer is protected for all payments or loans they have made. This is good because if something was to go wrong then they will be able to keep any money that may have been lost or taken illegally. This act covers the consumer when purchasing things through their credit cards or when getting any loans. They also are covered if they have not been given all the information that they should have been given when signing up for something or going into a credit agreement of any sort. It can also help protect any consumers who made credit card purchases between £100 to £30,000. This is so that if anything happens then they have the protection that they need. This act covers when consumers enter any credit agreement. This means that the consumers is entitled to get what they signed up for originally. So if something they ordered was faulty they have the right to send it back or if their product never arrived they can get one resent as the company they bought it from are liable for the goods. This therefore means that the consumers can have other rights as well when making purchases, particularly on online. The consumer can have a cool off period in which they will be allowed to cancel any purchases they have made. They also have to have a written notice from a creditor if the company decide to end any agreements or getting any of the products that they have purchased back, but the company have to give 7 days’ warning. Also, if the agreement that they signed up to ended up being not fair then the consumer can be protected because of the consumer credit act and they can attempt to take legal action against the company and either change the agreement or cancel it. It protects the consumer online because if on a website they buy something from hasn’t got all of the relevant information that they should have on there then they can ask for a refund on any of the products with not enough information on them. All online trade is protection under section 75 of the act ad it protects any payments on services or products that are between £100-£30,000 that were paid by credit card. Companies have to make sure that they are following the law by making sure that they give the consumer all information needed before they sign an agreement or purchase a product from them. Also, if a company is offering credit to a consumer they have to ensure that they are aged 18 or older as if they are not then it is illegal to give them a loan of credit. The company also has to ensure that the consumer will be able to pay them back as if it is likely to be impossible for them to pay the company back then they will not be able to complete the contract. All of this ensures that if they do get into difficulty then both the consumer and the company can have written information and contracts so should be able to come to a joint solution to a problem.
Cookies and Privacy Act 2011
The act is a legislation that protects user’s information. It ensures that a website will ask permission from the user before using cookies. The cookies store information from the user’s computer or device they are using. It will also control the data that the company will collect from the user and how they will use it. This act covers a user that is using any website that has cookies. It ensures that the user knows that if they accept cookies then the cookies will be stored on their device. It also ensures that the user has more options over the control of their personal information. Information can still be seen by companies even if the user declines the cook but the amount of information will be reduced. It protects customers by making sure that they are aware that the website they are on will be using cookies and so therefore also gives the user much more control over whether or not the website can use cookies. This allows users to trust the website more as they are made aware that the site does use cookies and they can also on some change the settings of what information the website can see. The information that the company are likely to keep include the users’ name, phone number and email address. The cookies and privacy act also helps trade online by making websites feel safer to the user as the website cannot run without asking the user permission to use cookies first. This allows the user to have more control over how safe the website is and what the website can and can’t access. This discourages website owners breaking this act of not asking about cookies as if they breach the Act then they can be highly punished for it. Companies have to make sure that they follow the law by asking users if they want to allow or not allow cookies to access their computer/device. If the user consents then the website can use cookies if they do not consent then they cannot run the cookies on the computer or device. If they don’t consent and the website continue to use cookies then it can lead to the law being breached and big punishments. Companies should always make sure that when someone goes on their website they ask for permission for cookies to stop any further complications. This then means that they will fully be remaining inside the law.
E-Commerce Regulations 2002
This act states what a company can and can’t do. It does this by having a set of rules and regulations that companies should stay to ensure that consumers are getting the appropriate level of service. This legislation covers customer and consumer rights to with what they are buying online. It also covered what they are entitled to and how they should get it. Examples of this include billing information and insurance information. This is because the consumer/customer is entitled to all information that they want. There is certain information that the consumer/customer has the right to access, this includes the price of the product or service they are buying, the steps needed to make an order, information about the service provider and a lot more. If the company do not give all appropriate information to the consumer/customer then it will lead to the company being punished as a result of this. These regulations also ensures that all consumers are safe when buying a product or service online, if the website do not stick to the regulations then they will be punished by getting a fine. Also, it protects customers because it means that the company has to provide all information and will have to make sure that the company are sharing all relevant and important information with the consumer/customer. It also helps trade online because it means that the transactions are safer and secure for both the consumer and company. This act can also help to encourage people to buy online because users will feel more secure and protected when buying things online due to this piece of law. Companies have to make sure that they are following the E-Commerce Regulations because if they don’t it would end up costing them a lot of money. They can ensure that they stick to it by making sure that they tell the consumer/customer everything that they need to know and by showing/sending the terms and conditions to the buyer who should also agree to them. This ensures that the company and the consumer are both protected in case there is a dispute between them.
Trading Standards
Trading Standards ensure that the consumer and the business are protected with laws when a consumer buys a product or service. They will also offer advice to consumers if they do have a problem with something that they have bought. They ensure that all products and services bought are of a good, expectable quality and that they are fit for the purpose that they were advertised for. They also ensure that when businesses promote a product they are not lying about what the product or service can do, this ensures that consumers are protected against false advertisement. Trading Standards covers many aspects such as offering advice to consumers, researching email scams, taking some of the cases to court and many other things. One thing they also do is to talk to some business and traders if they believe they may break the law. This ensures that if a trader is not aware of a rule they can make sure that they will find out about it. They can find out whether or not a trader is following instructions because they will do routine inspections on certain businesses and traders, certainly if they have been in trouble with the law before. Another they will do is check that a business is not overcharging customers by a lot. If they are found to have extremely high prices compared to competitors for the same service or product then they may be able to be taken to court. They mainly offer advice to new businesses and also advice consumers of any businesses that are not trustworthy. Trading Standards often join up with BBC Watchdog to make consumers aware of any companies that do not stick to trading regulations both online and not online. The most common cases that Trading Standards deal with are older people as they are more vulnerable and often get scammed both online and not online. They offer advice about the positive and negatives things about shopping online to consumers who may be new to online shopping and aren’t too sure on what laws there are to protect them. They make sure that laws that a consumer gets in store are also applied to online trading too. This ensures that consumers are still fairly treated even online. Companies have to ensure that they are following the trading standards law by ensuring that even if they do trade online they should stick to all of the laws and not take advantage of consumers. They should ensure that they give the consumer all appropriate information and give them a fit for purpose product or service. Trading standards also have individual trading standards for each part of the UK. For example, there is a South East office that then also links to and Isle of Wight trading standards and a Portsmouth one. This ensures that businesses, big and small can be advised of the trading standards laws.
Freedom of Information Act 2000
This act allows people to access any information that a public authority have. A public authority can be to do with the government such schools and the NHS. They have to publish certain things that they do and people can also request information and if it gets granted then they have to release that information to them. People cannot have access to their own information as the act does not cover that, the data protection act does but they can get information such as emails, letters, video recordings and much more. This act ensures that the public can make a request to access this information. This act covers any recorded information from a public authority. However, this does not mean that they have to give all information away as some information they do not have to give away. This act can allow businesses to access information held by public authorities so they can strategically plan what they are going to do and what products and services they may offer. This means that if a customer gets information from a public authority then it can ensure that they’re getting what they are entitled to and as the businesses may have got information from the public authority then it means that they are safer. The public authorities have to make sure that they give out the relevant information as if they don’t then they may get punished for it.
How has e-commerce changed customers' perspectives about shopping and buying products online?
E-Commerce has greatly changed customers’ perspectives about shopping and buying products and services as it gives consumers more of a variety of products and services to choose from as they don’t have to only stick to one place to look at. Also, they can look at the description of something and try and get a clearer picture of what the product or service is. This also puts pressure on e-commerce and online stores to have a good pricing strategy as people can have many options as to where they get their products or services from. Consumers also say that they find it less chaotic to shop online as they do not feel pressured by staff and do not have to get annoyed by other customers. It is also less time consuming for customers as they can do the shopping whenever they want as you can use the internet when you want to whereas the high street shops have certain opening times. This means that consumers can find time wherever they want for online shopping but are more restricted if they want to go high street shopping.
What are the economic and social impacts of technological changes on e-commerce?
The economic impact of technological changes is very big. People are now able to buy products for better prices from all over the world such as China. This means that the UK economy are missing out as less people are buying products directly from the UK. This also means that other countries aren’t likely to buy products from the UK either and other countries offer cheaper prices. Therefore e-commerce is good for consumers but not as good for the UK economy. Technological changes also effect the social implications of high street shopping. If people shop on the high street they are more likely to see their friends and have a conversation and a lot of people only go shopping with their friends therefore making shopping a very sociable activity. However, now that a lot of people buy things online they have no need to go to the shops and so therefore do not socialise with anyone about shopping they do not even speak to any staff that are involved with the buying process. An example of this was in my survey and although 33% did not do any Christmas shopping online, 67% did. This means that children could not see something in a shop and say that they wanted it, the parent would just look online and not speak as much to their child about what they wanted for Christmas. They would also look at the price of the product and compare the price to several other websites.
How has a ‘bricks and clicks’ approach changed shopping habits?
A brick is the shop and a click is online. A brick and click approach is good for businesses as it means that businesses can have custom from both people who prefer to buy products or services in store and those who prefer to buy products or services online. This means that businesses can benefit from both. A benefit of having both a shop and online store is that someone may go into a shop and see something they like, look at it but then leave it. They then may think when they get home they want it but the high street shop is shut so they can go online and buy it instead. This is good as it means that they can try, for example, clothes on, leave it, think about it and then get it at a later stage. But smaller businesses and/or businesses that do not have a website will lose out. This is because they will have less people buying from their store on the high street as they will be more likely to buy things online.
What are the benefits to customers?
There are many different benefits for customers. In a survey I led I found out a range of different people’s opinions of benefits of e-commerce. The most common answer was that it was easy and that it saved people time as it meant that they did not have to leave their house, this is because people are very busy in the 21st Century and have many things to worry about. Another benefit is that the customer can compare prices between different websites really quickly; this means that they can find out information quicker than if they actually had to go around the shops comparing prices. This can also help to encourage competitive prices in the market. Also, another benefit is that most websites have filters to help the consumer to filter down the search results so that they can find exactly what they are looking for compared to when they are in a shop where they may have had to ask an employee where something was or just had to find it themselves.
What are the drawbacks of e-commerce to customers?
One drawback to customers is that the consumers do not always feel safe on the website they use. This means that it may put them off shopping online as they want to ensure that all their details are safe from fraud etc. Another drawback of e-commerce is that it can be difficult for things to be delivered efficiently and in time. A lot of the time their parcels do not arrive when they are available to collect it and sometimes the parcels can get lost in the post or arrive late which means that it would have been easier for the consumer to just go into the store. Also, another drawback is that the costs of the delivery are sometimes too high when being delivered from other countries and in some circumstances the delivery cost is more expensive than the actual product. Also, sometimes the search pages can take too long and it may be difficult to find specifically what you may need. Another drawback is that the product or service you buy may not be how it is descripted and so therefore the consumer may have wasted their money and if they take legal action may have to wait a long time to get what they ordered and a refund or exchange.
How has e-commerce affected employment opportunities?
E-Commerce has greatly affected employment opportunities in a lot of different ways. For example, many high street shops are now shutting and turning into online only stores such as Littlewoods. This means that thousands of employees across the country are losing their jobs as there are not as many jobs needed for online services. It has also affected employment opportunities because people are buying a lot more online now than they were around 5 years ago meaning that gradually people are losing jobs and have to find another place to work. This means that in some cases these people will have to ask the government for money as they have no income. This affects the UK economy a lot
Electronic Cheque (E-Cheque)
An electronic cheque is also often called an e-cheque. It is a way that you can pay for your product or service online, like a cheque but online, it also follows the same laws as the paper cheques. An example of E-cheques is PayPal. It is quicker than if you were to fill out a paper cheque as there are less steps you have to complete in order for the payment to go through. However, they can be seen as more secure than paper cheques as there are more authentication steps such as digital signatures and encryption. E-cheques are a lot cheaper than paper cheques as they do not require a physical copy or to be sent off. There will often be a receipt for the E-Cheque sent through e-mail. E- Cheques can be nearly £1 cheaper than normal cheques. They can be more efficient and inexpensive compared to other payment methods. An advantage of E-Cheques for the customer is that payments can still be made online even if they haven’t got enough money to cover it. Therefore it gives the customer some more time to get the money for it. Also, it is good that the payment can still be made even if they haven’t got the money as it means that if the customer wants to get a product or service but do not get paid until the next day, they will still be able to have it. PayPal use E-Cheques for this reason so that they can send the money even if there is no money, it could take around 14 days for the money to come out. Another advantage of e- cheques is that the only information that the supplier gets from the customer is their email and the total amount. This means that the customer does not have to worry about their information being taken. Another good thing for the user is that they will have a better impact on the environment because if the user does not like to waste paper then they don’t have to worry about using paper for cheques. A negative thing about E-Cheques is that they can take a long time to have the money come out of someone’s account. It can sometimes take around 14 days, this means that the supplier won’t get the money for a while and so therefore may not want to send off the goods straight away. This is bad for the consumer if they want it as soon as possible. Another negative thing about e-cheques for the user is that as the e-cheque is directly linked to the user’s bank details, it can put their details at risk if their information was stolen. This can mean that whoever stole their information can have access to their bank details and take out money or to use the details to buy things with.
Credit Card Payments
A credit card is a quick and easy way of paying for goods and services. The credit card does not have to have money in it for the user to use it. This is because it will just add up all that the user has spent over the month and will take the money out of a linked account after a month. In order to get a credit card the user must have good credit otherwise they will not be allowed to get the card as they are not trustworthy and reliable enough to get the money back to them. However, if they do have a bad credit score then they can still have a credit card but they must put money in the account of around 100 to 200% of how much credit they want. This therefore means that they can have a credit card and use it. A credit card is unique as it allows the user to pay for things without having any money at all and there is not much of a limit on it either. A good thing about credit cards for the user is that they can get money back/cancel a payment if something went wrong, therefore not losing them any money. However, this does have to be between £100-£60,000). This is because a credit card offers a lot of protection when buying something compared to just using money or a different method. Another advantage for the user is that if they want to buy something but do not have any money for a while they can still buy something and can worry about paying it off at a later date. As long as they pay it by when they have to pay it off by they will benefit from it. However, this can also be seen as a disadvantage because the user has to pay off what they have spent and if they do not have the money for it then they can find themselves in financial difficulties. Also, if they aren’t repaying it then the longer they put it off, the more interest gets put on so therefore, the more they have to pay than if they had just bought it in full. Another disadvantage for the user is that when they make a purchase their card number and security number have to be given out each time they buy something. This means that when they buy something online they can’t guarantee that their details will be fully safe as their details may be accessed meaning that others can get the information about the card and use it.
Debit Card Payments
A debit card is just like the credit card however, the user can only use the card if they have money in their account. This is so that any transactions can be made instantly without having to pay it off. A user can go slightly over what is in their debit card but will have to pay it back quickly with a bit of extra charge on how much they went over. The debit card also allows users to take money out of a cash machine if they need to get some money out as long as they put their pin in. A unique thing about debit cards is that they already have the money in their account and so therefore do not have to worry about paying it back. A good thing about a debit card for the user is that they can now pay for something without even inputting their pin as there is now the scan option. This means that it will be efficient and quick when making purchases. It is also a quicker method than if someone paid with cheque or cash. This is good for the user as if they want to quickly buy something they can. A debit card can also be good for the user as it means that they can keep an eye on what they are spending and not spend too much as they can only spend what they have. Therefore they will not be at risk of getting into financial difficulties. Also, a debit card is easier for the user to get than a credit card as they do not have to apply for an assessment of their credit score etc. Therefore it is a lot easier for the user to get than a debit card. A disadvantage for debit cards is that just like the credit card, you have to give out your card number and security number meaning that your details are at risk. Certainly because there is less protection against fraud for debit cards compared to credit cards. Another disadvantage is that when the user spends money on their debit card the bank they are with may want to charge the user extra fees for using the service. This is not a good thing for the user. Another bad thing is that if there is a problem with the payment then it may be difficult to get any money back as the money was taken straight out the account so it may take longer to get the money back as they will be less willing to do so.
Online Payment Systems
Online payments systems is another way of buying goods and services online. An example of this is PayPal. PayPal is used when buying products or services online and it works by the user connecting their bank details to it and it transfers money from their bank account to the PayPal account allowing them to make purchases online. Many different websites use PayPal and it is one of the most common ways to pay as most websites use PayPal. However, this means that when the user uses PayPal they find it secure as PayPal has access to your credit card details but PayPal do not tell the person who the user is buying from the user’s card information therefore making it more secure for the user. This means that if a bad transaction happened the users details will not be as much at risk as the person who they were giving the payment too doesn’t have access to the users’ bank details. The only information they will have access to is the account name, the amount paid and any other information that may be needed to make sure that the transaction goes through. PayPal also offer a unique service called “Charge Back”. This is if the user thinks that a payment has been made that they didn’t make so therefore protects the user against fraud and scams. This allows the user to be refunded as they did not approve of the payment-although some people do take advantage of this scheme and claim they didn’t order a product but they do and therefore end up with both the product and their money back. A good thing about online payment systems like PayPal for the user is that the user isn’t giving all their details to websites which means that their information is securer and less at risk. Another advantage of this is that they can easily get any money back if they are a victim of fraud or scams. This is good for the user as it means that they do not have to worry about getting any money taken, certainly as the only information that websites get anyway is their e-mail, account number and the amount. But a disadvantage for the user is that if they haven’t got enough money in their account then it can take longer for a payment to go through as it will automatically be turned into an e-cheque. This can then take around 14 days to clear. Another disadvantage is that viruses can gain access to the account which can then lead to the account users’ money being taken and spent on other things and it isn’t always easy for the user to get their money back. Disputes aren’t always resolved easily as the user has to have evidence to prove that it was not them who made a payment and so therefore if they don’t have any evidence they may not get their money back.
Online Transferring Accounts
Online Transferring accounts are very similar to credit and debit cards. They are used to safely transfer money online. An example of an online transferring account is NoChex. NoChex works the same way as PayPal but is more aimed at smaller businesses and organisations. They mainly focus on 3 different types of customers-Personal, Seller and Merchant. The personal accounts allow the user to transfer money (as long as it is under £90) between accounts. A seller account transfers money that is up to £100, as there is more money there may be added fees and it also can only be from UK cards. Merchant accounts are mainly for organisations or businesses that want to transfer a lot of money. The merchant accounts are also not limited to the UK so they can also receive larger payments from international cards. The accounts that they offer have also got other additional services added alongside them such as managing the accounts and a telephone advisor. Personal, Seller and Merchant accounts all have to make sure that the owner of them upkeeps a minimum balance inside them as they may have some chargebacks. A good thing about online transferring accounts is that it is efficient and instant as they do not allow e-cheques so you not have to go through a long process of getting the payment through. This is good for the user as it means that their payments do not have to take as long. Another positive thing about online transferring accounts is that it means that customers and businesses can easily purchase services and online goods from each other effectively. This is good for the user as it means that they can run their business efficiently. A disadvantage of online transferring accounts is that they add a small fee onto each transaction that gets made, this is bad for the user as it means that if they want to purchase something they have to make sure that have some extra money in order to pay for the fees. Another disadvantage of online transferring accounts for the user is that they have to give out their credit or debit card details in order for the payment to go through, this means that they may be at risk of fraud if they do not use a secure website. Another disadvantage for the user is that as they do not process e-cheques, the user has to ensure that they have the correct money in their account otherwise the transaction will not be allowed and so therefore will be cancelled.
Existing Retailers
Service Providers
E-Tailers are shops which do not have a high street store, they have a shop which is only online. This is good for the business or organisation as it means that they do not have to worry about hiring a lot for the store as they do not need shop space, this also means they can avoid hiring workers to stand around in the shop if no one is visiting. Therefore they hire less staff which means that it will save the business money. As they do not need to look after customers and staff in a shop, they do not have to worry about the cost of heating/electricity/water etc. This is good for the business as it means that they do not have to pay a lot of money to ensure that a store is running that will try and impress customers, the only thing they have to worry about (presentation wise) is the online store. They also have a minimal need for using warehouse room. This means that they don’t have to worry about supplying stock in various stores around the country, they can have one which can store everything which means that they can hire less workers and also make the most out of the space. They can keep all of the stock in one place as they can dispatch the goods from that location straight to the customers’ house. Examples of E-Tailers include ebuyer.co.uk, Woolworths and Amazon. Amazon is one of the most well-known websites around the world and have many locations where they dispatch goods from. They can import the goods to different countries which can help to enable them to gain more profit from what they are selling as they can reach an audience all over the world. The main way that E-Tailers make their profit is by producing competitively low priced products to encourage traffic to go to the website. This means that they can make more as people are more likely to buy a product and then as they are happy with the price and service they will come back and shop again as they will have gained customer loyalty and trust.
A lot of businesses use manufacturers to supply them with products. However, some businesses manufacture their own products. This means that they make their own products and directly supplies them to their customer. This can be a lot cheaper for businesses and organisations as it means that they do not have to pay another company to product the goods for them. They will sell these products using e-commerce and phone sales, this therefore means that they do not have to worry about buying shop space to sell the products in. This is a lot cheaper for them. Also, as they manufacture their own products to sell it means that they can offer the consumer the opportunity to personalise the product that they are buying. This is a unique selling point and will encourage customers to buy things from them. Examples of manufacturers include Koenigsegg and Dell, they make money by applying discount deals on their products as they made them and that means that they can even sell things for lower prices as whatever they sell they make a profit on themselves as they did not buy the goods from anyone else to sell on anyway.
Existing retailers are businesses that have both online stores and high street stores. They make money both through their website and through the stores, this therefore means that if people prefer to buy things online then they can but if someone prefers to buy something in store then they also can. This means that they can benefit from all potential customers as they can target sales from both. This means that they can keep existing customers to their local stores as well as being able to get more sales online. This is a good way of ensuring sales from all of your customers however it can be more risky for smaller businesses as they may not be able to afford to keep both running at the same time. But it could work for a unique product in niche markets and will help them to make a profit. Stores that have both a store online and a high street store include businesses like Next and PC World. They ensure that they make profits by using the bricks and clicks approach which gives customers the choice of buying the products they want online or in store. The bricks is the offline sales through the businesses retail shops and the clicks is the online sales through their e-commerce website.
Prevention of Viruses
Prevention of identity theft
Firewall impact on site performance
RSA Certificates
Strong Passwords
Alternative authentication methods
Prevention of Hacking
Hacking is unauthorised access into a network/connection through any security settings that the user may have and get data from the computer/device. There are many reasons someone would hack something like a computer such as getting personal information, money, to prove a point, as a joke, deface a website as a protest. All of these reasons encourage someone to hack. The legislation that hacking breaks is the computer misuse act. As soon as they take information off of the computer is will break the computer misuse act. This is because it means that they have used a computer to take someone else’s information and is therefore misusing the reason for a computer. An example of a business that was hacked is Sony. Sony got hacked and the company did not know whether or not it was an internal or external hack of the business. They got fined a lot of money which had a huge impact on the business and their reputation. This means that they will lose a lot of customers as they will not be trusted which will lose them more money which is why it is important that they have the right security settings. There are many different types of security methods such as Firewall, Strong Passwords and Secure Socket Layer. Firewall is a piece of software that it a virtual barrier between a website and the computer. It stops any unknown things like viruses coming in. It can stop hackers getting into the system. Another way is by having strong passwords- if you have a password which has different, randomised numbers, letters and symbol then it will be more safe and secure from a hacker as they will find it difficult to crack a code. But this means that the user may not be able to remember the password. If the user chose an obvious password like ‘hello’ then the hacker may be able to hack into one of their internet sites they use like Amazon. . All of these security methods do comply with the Computer Misuse Act. A website will normally have a certificate if it is a secure website. The company will pay to make sure that it is secure and the certificate is valid for a year. This will make them more trusted by users as they can feel secure on the site when entering data.
A virus is software which is put on someone’s system to either cause damage, annoy people or to steal information. Different viruses have more of a higher impact than other viruses. You can get these viruses from emails, social media, downloading music/videos and many other ways. If you use an insecure website to download things like music then you are more likely to get a virus. This can have a huge impact on the computer. If a virus does get into the computer then it can be a breach of the Computer Misuse Act. An example of a virus is worm. Worm is a virus that will replicate itself. For example, if you click on a link from either your email, Facebook etc. and it has the worm virus it will send itself to all of the users addresses which may then mean that the users friends will open the link and therefore again send itself out to all of their addresses. The worm virus is not very harmful in most cases however, it can be spread very quickly and accesses everyone’s addresses. Another virus is the Macro virus. The Macro virus changes settings in a specific application such as Microsoft Word. It will make an action act in a certain way. For example, if you wanted to save a document you would press the save button but the Macro virus may have changed it so that every time you press the save button it will just shut down the application without it saving. This can be very annoying for the user as it means that they can use the application just not save anything which they will probably want to do. The last virus I looked into was a Trojan virus. The Trojan virus is a hidden virus in a legitimate piece of software. This means that it can be quite difficult for a computer to identify it. You can find these in things like zip folders. Once it has been opened it can have access to your files and steal information or also destroy software. This can really affect the user as the only way really to get rid of it is to reset the hard drive which will remove all of the software etc. So therefore it is basically a reset computer back to factory settings. A way to prevent viruses getting in is to again use a firewall, however, some viruses cannot be picked up through a firewall as they are so hidden such as Trojan. There is also numerous security software that a user can download to prevent viruses. You can also use the Secure Socket Layer so that it is harder for viruses to get through to the computer. All of these ways of preventing viruses are within the rights of the Computer Misuse Act.
Identity theft is when you take information like name, address, date of birth and use it to get things in their name. It is easier to do identity theft online. If someone does this then it will break the Data Protection Act. The data protection act protects people’s personal information. You will break it if you share or use someone’s personal information. This may also break the Computer Misuse Act. If the data protection act gets breached then the individual can be held responsible for it if it is within a company. If someone does breach it then they have to declare it, this will then mean that they can get fined and some people can even lose their jobs. This can also have a huge impact on a business, they may lose reputation which then will mean a loss in consumers which then means a loss in money. An example is the NHS. The NHS has often had reports that one of the workers have left a USB stick of information on a train or someone has hacked into their system. This is a major breach of the data protection act because it has all of the patient’s details and medical details. This means that if someone has breached it they can be fined an unlimited amount which can mean that they will be forever in debt and may even be fired form their job. This means that some people do not always trust the NHS with their details even though a patient is meant to feel comfortable in a hospital they may be nervous that their information may get stolen so they may not give much of their personal information to the doctors which they need to do because it will mean that the doctor will be able to access vital information. A way to prevent this from happening will be to have the Secure Socket Layer so that the information will be secure on there. All of these methods of preventing identity fraud comply with the Data Protection Act and protect the user from being a victim to fraud. It also gives the user the protection that they need if they are a victim of it.
Consumer led e-commerce sites are sites in which a consumer will go on the website to look at information and then will want to or be tempted to buy something from the site. An example of this is Odeon the cinema. Consumers will go on the website to look at movie times and may then want to buy the cinema tickets when they see it is available. They may also be able to get exclusive offers that will tempt them to buy them. Consumer led sites are most commonly used for and works better for services rather than physical items, this is because the business can get more sales out of the consumer and the consumer can also find out a lot of information. Other businesses that have consumer led websites is National Rail Enquiries and Daily Mail online. They encourage people to buy things when people go on there to look for information. This is good for the business as it is an effective way to make profits. Although consumers aren’t expected to buy anything on the website, they get tempted to buy stuff and normally end up making a purchase on the site after they have read some information on the website. This is why it is important for businesses to put good, effective information on the website which will encourage people to buy things.
Service providing websites provide services rather than physical products. They do not have any stock for the consumer to buy, just services. This can includes holidays and video streaming. Some service providers can make a lot of money from only selling services as it means that they do not have to actually send the product through the mail and they do not need to hold their stock either as it is mostly done online. Examples of service providers include Netflix, Flybe, Lastminute.com and many other holiday and video streaming websites. Service providers save a lot of money by not having to buy high street store spaces and places to keep their stock but they have to ensure that the services they are offering have a demand for them as if no one is buying the service then they will not be making nay profit. They should ensure that the consumers keep going back to them for their service. For example, Netflix have monthly subscriptions to ensure that the consumer will use them, they also provide a month’s free trial to encourage them to keep buying the service. A good thing about service providers is that they can send some of the services electronically like tickets. This saves the business a lot of money than if they were to send it through the post.
Financial websites who handle things such as insurance websites and bank websites are commonly used. Other website such as confused.com can benefit off of the financial websites by searching through all of the financial websites to get a consumer the best deal. Companies like confused.com make big profits from providing these services. This is because a lot of people do not want to spend time looking through all of these websites and find it easier if they ask someone else to do the searching for them as a lot of them are pushed for time. Essentially, these websites like confused.com because an online version of the high street as they get to see and compare different prices of different shops. Other examples include Egg and Aviva. They manage to make a profit because they do not need to rent land for a shop as they are all based online. They can also offer rewards and discounts for being a part of trusted search providers. This all ensures that they are making a profit.
They are many benefits of having a brick and click company. One of the benefits is that they can target every customer whatever their preference is. This is because if a customer prefers to use a high street store then they can still go into the high street store. But if someone would rather use an online store then they also can. This is good as it means that they won’t be putting any customer off because of the way they sell their products and services. It allows everyone of any age and preference to access the products and service. Also, some people would rather get things delivered than bring them home from the shops so if they order online then they can get them delivered to their preferred delivery place. Another benefit is that it gives consumers the chance to shop around and find the best deals as if they just had a high street store the consumer would have to go to loads of different shops whereas online they don’t have to. This means that stores can be competitive both online and in store. Another benefit is that the consumer can see if a product is in stock in the high street store. In shops like Argos a consumer can look online to see if a certain shop has a product and they can then reserve it and then go in the store to collect it. This means that even when the high street store closes, people can still look online to see what products are available in store.
An example of a successful brick and click organisation is Argos. They have both an online shop and a high street shop. This means that they are targeting a wide range of people. This also means that some people may look online for a product and find one they like and can reserve it online too as Argos have the option of reserving things for the customer to pick up in store. This is also cheaper for Argos as it means they do not have to deliver it. It also benefits the customer as they can search for a product that they want online first so they don’t have to waste time while they are out trying to look for the product that they want. Another example is supermarkets. Supermarkets like Asda, Tesco and Sainsbury’s all have online stores and high street shops. This means that if someone would rather do their weekly shop online and get it delivered they can or they can decide to go to the high street store and do their weekly shopping. It means that a wide range of people can have the opportunity to use the store as there are more options for the consumer. Tesco have a click and collect service where the consumer can choose what they want online and they can then go to the store and pick it up. This is good as the consumer can have a lot more options as to how they shop and what is more convenient for them.
They are also many disadvantages to having brick and click. This is because it will cost the company a lot of money to have both as they have to pay for the rent of all the shops and also a web server. Therefore only bigger companies with a bigger net worth can afford to do brick and click. Another disadvantage is that the companies have to constantly update the website with new products and delete old products. This can cost a lot of money as they have to hire people who can do this on a regular basis to ensure that the website is up to date. Another disadvantage is that if the website shows different products to the high street one then the consumer will not be aware of all the available products or services. This means that if the consumer goes to the high street store and doesn’t see anything they like then they will not go on the website as they will feel like the store does not appeal to them so they won’t find anything they want.
An example of an organisation that can be seen as an unsuccessful organisation is Amazon.co.uk. Even though they are successful, they still can be seen as unsuccessful as they encourage users to write reviews on the products on the website. This means that if people review a product and it is really bad then the user will not want to shop there. A lot of websites have this problem such as Argos, The Disney Store and TripAdvisor. This means that if the reviews are negative other users will not want to buy the products or services. If they have a shop on the high street people may not want to go in there as they will have seen some reviews online.
All of the different payment methods have their benefits and limitations. However, it is up to the user what method they prefer best and would rather use. However, a lot of people use PayPal for making transactions online as they trust it compared to other methods of payment systems such as e-cheques. They also prefer transfers to be quite instant whereas payments systems such as E-Cheques take a while for the payments to go through as they have to be done a certain way. Also, users prefer it if they do not directly input their credit and debit cards into a website as they feel like it may not be as safe than if they use PayPal as it means that where they are buying from do not directly have all of their personal details. PayPal works closely with credit and debit cards and is trusted by many consumers and it is also similar to No-Chex and E-Cheques however, PayPal covers all of it.
Information has to get through a firewall. The firewall prevents anything that could be harmful to the computer from getting through. It is also used to direct information to the right server. It will protect the system from viruses that may be very harmful to the system. The user of the system however does have to pay for a firewall so if they do not have a firewall then the viruses in the information will just go straight through into the system. Once through the firewall it will go to ports 80 and 25 to get to either the mail server or web server. Port 80 will send the information to the web server and Port 25 will send the information to the Email Server. The firewall therefore makes the website a lot more securer as viruses do not get in or out.
An RSA certificate is a piece of software which is also known as an SSL certificate. You install it onto a system to provide a level of security to protect the system against hackers. This means that it will protect both the website and anyone who decides to go on the website. A RSA certificate can cost a lot of money for a year (A Symantec SSL Certificate can cost around £259 a year). This is a lot if it was s small business or charity. However, this price is justified if you consider the security risks if you do not get one.
HTTP/HTTPS stands for Hypertext Transfer Protocols. The HTTP makes a system work with another system to let the user be able to use the URL part at the top of the browser. HTTPS means that a website is secure which will allow a user to use it and can go on the website and see the data that is on the website. HTTP means that the site is not secure which means that the user can use the website but any information that they input or view will not be secure and may be seen by others. This can be seen when using YouTube; this is because anyone can access the homepage but when the user wants to log into their account on YouTube, they will be directed to a more secure site (HTTPS) so that only the user will can see what’s on the account, the data will probably be encrypted so that people who shouldn’t be able to read the information can’t read the information. The user may want to search for something on the site so may type in a domain name.
Another way to prevent identity theft is to have a strong password. Having a strong password will mean that people will find it difficult to access your account. A strong password will include upper/lower case letters, numbers and symbols. You can find out whether or not your password is strong by testing it out on some websites. However, you still do not know whether you can fully trust the website or not. If you use the website I have used on the images to check your password it shows you exactly how strong your password is. It also shows a breakdown of why it is so strong or weak. As you can see ‘qwerty’ is a very weak password as it is simple and common. Whereas ‘Aw8uSbD9-nj’ is classed as a very strong password. This is because it has numerous numbers, letters and symbol. However, it would be extremely difficult for a user to remember this which is why the user should try and get a password which is not too strong, not too weak and also not too obvious to someone such as the name of their child or friend etc.
The e-commerce sites could use software called a Secure Socket Layer. It creates a unique connection between a company’s website and the user, it encrypts the data that they are inputting so only they can see it. This can stop hackers from seeing any data that is being inputted
To approve some payments there is often some jumbled up text to ensure that you are not a robot. The user has to enter what they think it says in the box (as seen on the right). This ensures that no ‘robot’ can automatically access loads of accounts at one time. Most sites use this as it allows the site to me more secure from hackers. If people cannot read the code they can refresh a new one or if they are vision impaired they can listen to one and insert the code they hear. This method is one of the best ways to ensure the authorisation of the user.
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