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SES4U: Constellation Project

Draco and Gemini
by

Sarah Tran

on 27 November 2013

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Transcript of SES4U: Constellation Project

SES4U: CONSTELLATION
PROJECT

DRACO
GEMINI
Group Members: Jenny Villena and Sarah Tran

Due Date: November 26, 2013
Class Code: SES4U-01

DRACO
• Latin for 'Dragon'
• Constellation in the northern hemisphere
• Circumpolar
• Ptolemy
• 14 main stars
Alpha Draconis
• Thuban (snake)
• Right Ascension: 14h 03m
• Declination: +64° 37'
• White Dwarf/Yellow Giant
• Magnitude of 3.64
• About 215 ly
• Pole star 4800 years ago
Beta Draconis
• Rastaban (head of the snake)
• One of the dragon's eyes
• 17h 29m 3s +52° 20'
• White Giant
• magnitude of 2.78
• About 400 ly
• Binary system
Gamma Draconis
• Brightest star in Draco
• Eltanin
• 17h 55m 4s +51° 30'
• Yellow Giant
• About 110 ly
• Magnitude of 2.2
• Luminosity 145x the sun
• The dragon's other eye
Delta Draconis
• Nodus Secundus, Aldib, Altais
• 19h 12m 33s +67° 39'
• Yellow star
Epsilon Draconis
• Tyl
• 19h 48m +70° 16'
• Yellow Giant
• Double Star
Zeta Draconis
• Aldhibah
• 17h 08m +65° 42'
• Blue subgiant
Eta Draconis
• 16h 24m +61° 31'
• Yellow Giant
Iota Draconis
• Ed Asich
• 15h 24m 56s +58° 57'
• Orange giant
Lambda Draconis
• Gianfar
• 11h 28m 30s +69° 36'
• Red giant
Mu Draconis
• Arrakis
• 17h 05m 19s +54° 28'
• White main-sequence
Nu Draconis
• 17h 32m +55° 10'
• Blue main-sequence
Xi Draconis
• 17h 53m 31s +56° 52'
• Orange giant
Sigma Draconis
• 19h 32m 21s +69° 39'
• Yellow main-sequence
Psi Draconis
• Dsiban
• 17h 41m 58s +72° 09'
• Brown Dwarf
LOCATION OF DRACO
• 17h 65°
• North
• Close Constellations:
-Ursa major + minor
-Bootes
-Hercules
-Lyra
-Cygnus
-Cepheus


DRACO
• Not very bright
• Can be seen with the naked eye
• Brightest star is Gamma Draconis
• Seen all year long in Northern hemisphere
• Best seen in July (@ 9pm)
•Visible in latitudes 90° and -15°
M102 (NGC 5866)
• "Spindle Galaxy"
• Lenticular Galaxy
• Mistaken as M101
• 15h 6m 5s +55° 46'
• About 50 million ly
• Pierre Mechain (1781), Charles Messier (1781), or William Herschel (1788)
Cat's Eye Nebula
• Planetary Nebula (1st)
• 3300 ly away
• Magnitude of 9.8
• Central star is 10,000x than the Sun
• William Herschel (1786)
• Examined by Spectroscope
• Dying star
Draco Dwarf Galaxy
• Spheroidal galaxy
• 260,000 ly
• Satellites the milky way
• Albert George Wilson 1954
• Contain a lot of dark matter
Abell 2218
• Galaxy Cluster
• 2.3 mly
• Mass of 10,000 galaxies
• Acts as a lens
• George O. Abell
• Palomar Observatory Sky Survey was used
Tadpole Galaxy
• Arp 188, UGC 10214
• Collided barred spiral galaxy
• 400mly
• 280000ly trail of stars
• Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys

Kepler-10
• Sun-like star
• NASA satellite/Kepler Spacecraft
• Has planetary system
Draconids Meteor Shower
• Early-mid October
Myth of Draco
Myth of Draco
-Gaia gave Hera a golden apple tree as a wedding gift
-The dragon "Ladon" was sent to guard the tree in the garden of Hesperides
-As one of Hercules' 12 labors, he must retrieve a golden apple
-He killed the dragon and stole the apples
-Hera saddened by this, placed the dragon in the heavens for its faithfulness
-Minerva fought the Dragon in a war against the Giants
-Minerva threw the Dragon's body to the heavens
-Cadmus killed the dragon with 4 other people to become the discoverers of the city of Thebes
-In some legends, Draco is connected to the serpent in the bible
SOURCES
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Draco_(constellation)
http://www.space.com/16755-draco-constellation.html
http://www.topastronomer.com/StarCharts/Constellations/Draco.php
http://starryskies.com/The_sky/constellations/draco.html
http://www.constellation-guide.com/constellation-list/draco-constellation/
http://www.pa.msu.edu/people/horvatin/Astronomy_Facts/constellation_pages/draco.htm
http://www.comfychair.org/~cmbell/myth/draco.html
http://www.souledout.org/nightsky/draco/draco.html
http://www.constellationsofwords.com/Constellations/Draco.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kepler-10
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tadpole_Galaxy
http://www.daviddarling.info/encyclopedia/T/Tadpole_Galaxy.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Abell_clusters
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cat's_Eye_Nebula
http://hubblesite.org/newscenter/archive/releases/2004/27/image/a/
http://www.astrosurf.com/jwisn/m102.htm
http://messier.seds.org/m/m102d.html
http://mexicanskies.com/constellations/draco.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thuban
http://www.windows2universe.org/mythology/draco_dragon.html
http://www.mallorcaweb.net/masm/Dra1.htm
http://www.nightskyatlas.com/ngcData.jsp?id=DRA
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Psi_Draconis
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sigma_Draconis
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xi_Draconis
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mu_Draconis
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nu_Draconis
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lambda_Draconis
http://www.astrostudio.org/xhip.php?hip=56211
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iota_Draconis
http://stars.astro.illinois.edu/sow/edasich.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zeta_Draconis
http://server7.wikisky.org/starview?object_type=1&object_id=408&object_name=22+Dra&locale=EN
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Epsilon_Draconis
http://www.constellationsofwords.com/stars/Tyl.html
http://www.astrostudio.org/xhip.php?hip=97433
http://frostydrew.org/stars.dc/star/id-18222/
http://www.dibonsmith.com/dra_con.htm
http://www.astrostudio.org/xhip.php?hip=85670
http://stars.astro.illinois.edu/sow/thuban.html
http://www.skyscript.co.uk/draco.html

GEMINI
• "The Twins"
• One of the Zodiac
• Area of 514 square degrees
• 30th largest constellation out of 88
• One of the 48 constellations described by Ptolemy
Castor
• Alpha Geminorum
• 7h 24m 35.9s
• +31° 53' 18"
• Magnitude of 1.94
• Multiple star system
• Double Star
• 49.8 ly away from Earth
• White-Blue
• 2.76 solar mass
• radius of 2.4 solar mass
• temperature of 10286 K
Pollux
• Brighter of the two stars
• Beta Geminorum
• Yellowish
• 7h 45m 18.9s
• +28° 01' 34"
• magnitude of 1.15
• 2.04 solar mass
• 8.8 radius
• temperature of 4666K
• 33.78 light years
Gemini
• Location of Gemini
-7h +20°
-Second Quadrant (NQ2)
-Latitude +90° to -60°
-Winter to Spring (Northern Hemisphere)
-Summer to Fall (Southern Hemisphere
• Constellations near Gemini
-Canis Major + Minor
-Cancer
-Taurus
-Auriga
-Orion
-Monoceros
-Lynx
Gemini
• Can be easily seen by spotting the 2 bright stars: Pollux and Castor
• Best seen Late May and June
• Best direction: Low in the west/north-west corner of the sky
• Gemini is visible from January to May
• It will set in the west two hours earlier each month
Messier 35
• NGC 2168
• Star Cluster
•7 stars with known planets
Medusa Nebula
• Sharpless 2-274
• Abell 21
• Planetary Nebula
• In Gemini constellation; borders Canis Minor
• Old and large nebula
• 4 ly across
• Filaments of glowing gas is similar to the serpent hair of Medusa
• Magnitude of 7.68
• 1500 light years away
• Low surface brightness of 15.99 to 25
• Visible through a telescope with OIII filter
NGC 2158
• Open Cluster in Gemini
• Southwest of Messier 35
•Magnitude of 8.6
• About 11,000 ly
• About a billion years old
• Using Gemini Near-Infrared Imager
• Extrasolar planet or exoplanet
• mass at least 2.3 times that of Jupiter
• orbital period of almost 590 days
The Lonely Planet/Gemini IV
Myth of Gemini
• Twin brothers Castor and Pollux
• Mother: Leda; Sister: Helen
• Different fathers
• One night, Leda was made pregnant by Zeus in a form of a swan and her husband: the king of Tyndarus of Sparta
• Pollux was immortal and known for his strength
• Castor was mortal and known for his horse skills
• Finds Golden Fleece, fought in Trojan War
Myth of Gemini
• Pollux was in sorrow when his brother died
• He begged Zeus to let him share his (Pollux) immortality with Castor
• Zeus acknowledged their heroism
• reunited the pair in heaven
SOURCES
http://earthsky.org/brightest-stars/best-castor-brightest-second-magnitude-star
http://earthsky.org/brightest-stars/pollux-not-castor-is-geminis-brightest-star
http://earthsky.org/constellations/gemini-heres-your-constellation
http://www.gemini.edu/node/12089
http://www.ufoevidence.org/cases/case977.htm
http://www.space.com/16816-gemini-constellation.html
http://www.space.com/22068-pollux.html
http://www.space.com/19947-skywatchers-can-see-planets-star-clusters-this-march-video.html
http://www.space.com/23281-geminid-meteor-shower.html
http://www.constellation-guide.com/constellation-list/gemini-constellation/
http://www.gemini.edu/node/12089
http://www.comfychair.org/~cmbell/myth/gemini.html
The Geminids are a meteor shower that happens every December.
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