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Interpersonal Attraction, Close Relationships & Groups

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Silver SealSun

on 1 June 2016

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Transcript of Interpersonal Attraction, Close Relationships & Groups

Culture and Psychology 201
Chapter 9

Interpersonal Attraction, Close Relationships & Groups
Close Relationships
How do you define attractiveness?
Close Relationships
Interpersonal Attraction
Friends and Enemies
Working with Others
Ingroups & Outgroups
Four Forms of Relationships
Friendships are found in all cultures.

"Friends make good times more enjoyable and bad times less painful. "
"Keep your friends close and your enemies closer."
Evolutionary advantage

Parental love

Incentive to keep parents together

Romantic love is a human universal
Historically marriages were arranged

Marriage trends are changing

Evidence suggests that cultural differences in marriage show similar outcomes
Heine, S. J. (2012). Cultural Psychology. New York: Matrix Publishing Services.

Stevens, G. (1991). Propinquity and Educational Homogamy. Sociological Forum, 6(4), 715.

Fisher, H. (1996). The origin of romantic love and human family life. National Forum, 76(1), 31.

Bock, J. (2009, August). Are Our Big Brains the Reason Newborns Can't Walk?. Scientific American. Retrived from http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/human-babies-long-to-walk/

Evolutionary Perspective
Cultural Perspective
What is its purpose?
Attitudes towards love are changing

Love marriages are more visible in cultures that value individualism

Individualistic cultures make many assumptions about love
Communal Sharing

Authority Ranking

Equality Matching

Market Pricing
Ingroup vs Outgroup Video
All people belong to nuclear families, extended families, neighborhoods, tribes, schools, clubs, teams, social cliques, offices, & committees.

People’s lives are experienced within the context of groups.

Language, customs and obligations vary significantly.
Independent selves
Permeable boundary between their ingroups and outgroups.

Interdependent selves
Clearer cut boundary differentiating these groups.

Arranged Marriages
Cultural Perspective
"Love" Marriages
Among, interdependent people, obligations to others are an important part of ingroup relations. It’s important to them to distinguish who they have obligations to from those they do not.

It is not easy for outgroup members to become part of the ingroup.

It is rare for a member of the ingroup to fall into the outgroup category.

Among, independent people the self is perceived functioning differently from his/her social network.

An independent person identity is not affected by the gain or loss of new relationships.

Independent people are more willing to form new relationships.

The boundary distinguishing ingroups from outgroups is less significant to self-construction for those with independent selves.

Relationship Identity
People from a collectivistic culture view ingroup members as an extension of themselves and maintain distance from outgroup members.

People from individualistic cultures, typically view themselves as distinct from all others regardless of their relationship to the other individuals.

Interpersonal attraction may or may not be universal and changes over time.
Independent individuals value close relationships more than do interdependent individuals.
Culture plays a role in how you pursue a future mate.
People’s lives are experienced within the context of groups.
The four forms of relationships include: communal sharing, authority ranking, equality matching and market pricing.
Group performance is affected by: social facilitation, social loafing, and social striving.

Bilateral symmetry

Average facial characteristics

Norms across cultures

Social Facilitation
Being surrounded by people affects our performance in that it creates arousal, and this arousal affects how well we stay on task.
People perform well- learned tasks better and poorly learned tasks worse in the presence of others.
Social Facilitation

Social Facilitation is a process that has been seen in many different species including cockroaches.
Operates at a fundamentally biological level.
Appears universal
Social Loafing
When it is not clear how much any individual in the group is contributing people often don't work as hard.
Social Loafing
Suggests more intrinsic motivation for challenging tasks because of the prospect of greater satisfaction or reward.
Less loafing with groups of friends than among strangers.
Groups composed of all women loaf less than groups that consist of all men.
Nature of the group
Other Bases of Interpersonal Attraction
Propinquity Effect

Mere Exposure Effect

Similarity-Attraction Effect
Limitations of Social Loafing by Culture
When people care about their relations with their groups (as with friends), they are less motivated to catch a free ride at the group's expense. Suggests that there might be less social loafing in interdependent cultures.
Limitations of Social Loafing: Social Striving
The opposite of social loafing is social striving which suggests that people work better when they are evaluated as a group than as individuals.
Whether people from collectivist cultures display social loafing or social striving depends significantly on who the others are in the group.
More individualistic cultures are not impacted by the composition of the group. (ingroup or outgroup).
Collectivists vs. Individualistic
Competing Vs Cooperating
Engaging in a task with an opponent can have an impact on an individual's performance.
Zero- Sum Game
One individual's gains are entirely at the expense of the opponent. This produces more competition among individuals.
Non- Zero sum game
An individual's gains do not necessarily come at the expense of his or her opponent.
These games can have instances where both parties win.
Provide a basis for profitable cooperation among individuals.
Collectivism and Individualism
Collectivistic cultures are concerned with maintaining harmony among one's relations rather than being solely concerned about the outcomes of others.
Individualistic cultures have strong competitive instincts.
Two strategies one can pursue in negotiations
Confrontational strategy
Ignore the other side's position and only press for one's own cause.
Typically involve threats or accusing the other side of making unreasonable demands.
Escalates conflict until victor is claimed.
Propose solutions that would hopefully:
1. increase the likelihood that the other party is satisfied with the deal
2. comply with what the other side asks
3. seek assistance from a third party who had no vested interest to serve as a mediator.
Work at reducing conflicts and the outcome is typically that neither party gets exactly what they wanted but neither party loses out.
Collectivistic Vs. Individualistic
More likely to:
Collectivistic culture
comply with the other party's request
seek compromise.
Individualistic cultures
Use strategies that: are threatening, accusatory, and dismissive.
Negotiations between two similar cultures and similar negotiation styles produce higher joint outcomes for both sides than when intercultural teams negotiate.
Four Forms of Relationships

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