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Immunization Presentation 2013

For Center of Nursing Studies
by

Lynnette Penney

on 13 December 2016

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Transcript of Immunization Presentation 2013

Immunization and Vaccine
Documenting Vaccines
Must be completed in Ink and should
contain the following:
The Date the Vaccine is Administered
The Name of the Vaccine
It must be the antigenic name not the trade name (i.e. DTaP-IPV/hib not Pediacel)
The Lot Number
The Route
The Site
The Dose
Your Signature
and
Designation
Storage and Transporting Vaccines
Vaccine Saves Lives: A Public Health
Success Story
Vaccines Protect Everyone!
Directly: The Person Vaccinated
Indirectly: Protecting those that can not be vaccinated or do not respond well to vaccine
The Case for Immunization
Vaccines are Safe and Effective: The diseases they prevent can cause permanent disability or even death
It's a small World: Travel can spread rare diseases quickly
Many vaccine-preventable diseases
have no effective treatments
For some diseases, like Tetanus, infection does not produce immunity: Vaccines Produce Immunity
How Vaccines Work
Why we need to immunize
Must Keep Immunization Rates High (disease re-emergence)
Risks and benefits of vaccines (cont’d)
© 2010 Canadian Paediatric Society I www.cps.ca
© 2010 Canadian Paediatric Society I www.cps.ca
© 2010 Canadian Paediatric Society I www.cps.ca
Vaccine success in Canada
© 2010 Canadian Paediatric Society I www.cps.ca
Immunity
Vaccine success stories
Smallpox

Polio
© 2010 Canadian Paediatric Society I www.cps.ca
Risks and benefits of vaccines
Why outbreaks (still) occur
© 2010 Canadian Paediatric Society I www.cps.ca
Outbreaks occur for different reasons, such as:

Public doubt: Are vaccines safe enough?

Travel:

Waning immunity:
© 2010 Canadian Paediatric Society I www.cps.ca
Immunology of vaccines
Types of vaccines
Myths and Controversies Surrounding Vaccine
The Autism Myth: MMR
The Thimerosal
Myth
Myth: Vaccines can cause brain damage and other illnesses that can't otherwise be explained
Fact:
* Vaccinations are frequently given in early infancy
* Brain abnormalities are often not recognizable this early.
* An abnormality is often recognized only after one or more vaccine doses have been given, but this does not mean the vaccine caused the problem
Myth: Rates of disease were declining before the use of vaccine
Fact:
Not So. There were fewer deaths from some diseases (i.e. measles, diphtheria) because of improved nutrition and health care, but for other diseases (i.e polio) healthy children continue to die or become disabled.
Myth: Having infections like Measles, actually stimulate the immune system
Fact:
No infection acts as a general stimulus to the immune system. Measles as well as many other infections can actually suppress the immune system.
*1998: the Lancet published a study led by Dr. Andrew Wakefield which appeared to link MMR to autism.
*Rates of MMR immunization dropped - This led to an outbreak in measles
*The study has since been thoroughly discredited
*Thimerosal: A perservative used to prevent the growth of bacteria and fungi in multidose vials of vaccine.
*Not in single dose vials of vaccine
* 1999 Concern in U.S. about possible toxicity of ethyl mercury
*2004: U.s. Institute of Medicine found no link between Thimerosal and Autism
*Diagnoses of Autism continue to increase even since Thimerosal has been removed form vaccines
Commonly
Asked
Questions
Why should my
pre-teen be vaccinated against HPV?
Can Vaccines cause the infection they are supposed to prevent?
Shouldn't Vaccines be Delayed Until Children are Older and There is Less Risk of Side Effects?
Can too many vaccines overload a baby's immune system?
Since most other children are vaccinated and diseases are disappearing, why bother vaccinating my child?
Is Natural Immunity More Effective?
*Immunity after most vaccines is just as effective as that induced by disease, without the risks of disease
* Acquiring Immunity by natural infection may cause serious harm before it provides any immunity
Won't Breastfeeding Protect Babies from Infection?
* Breastmilk is the ideal food for babies. It provides important nutritional and immune factors, and contains antibodies that help prevent some infections
* Breastmilk does not contain effective levels of antibodies, especially for vaccine preventable diseases.
* Protection rapidly decreases when breastfeeding stops.
* There is no evidence that side effects are more common in infants than older children.
* Delaying vaccination leaves very young children at risk of complications and death from vaccine preventable diseases.
* Infants respond to about 10,000 different antigens at any one time.
* Bacteria and viruses expose an infant to large numbers of antigens at once - far more than are found in vaccines.
* Giving combined vaccines means less needles for a child.
* As long as a vaccine-preventable disease exists somewhere in the world, any unvaccinated child is at risk
* Vaccination does not get rid of some germs (i.e. pneumococcus or tetanus)
* For maximum protection, complete vaccine series well before sexual activity starts.
* School based programs are more effective in reaching target populations.
* Younger children have a better immune response to vaccine.
* Inactivated vaccines do not contain live germs and can not cause infection
* Live vaccines contain virus that have been changed so they are very weak and unable to cause illness in healthy people.
When speaking to parents about vaccination:
Information for Parents
Regarding Immunization
Information for Professionals Regarding Immunization:
* Listen, evaluate and categorize
* Recognize legitimate concerns
* Provide context
* Refute misinformation
* Provide valid information
* Recognize that immunizing is a parent's decision
* Educate about potential consequences of the decision
* Make a clear reccommendation
* "Your Child's Best Shot: a parent's guide to vaccination" (Ronald Gold
CPS)
* "A Parent's Guide to Immunization" (PHAC)
*Vaccine Specific Information Sheets (Pre and Post immunization)
* Websites:
Health Canada
PHAC
Immunize. ca
* "Canadian Immunization Guide" (PHAC)
* "Immunization Communication Tool for Immunizers" (Immunize BC)
* Provincial Immunization Manual (Government of NL website)
* Websites:
Health Canada
PHAC
Immunize.ca
CPS
NACI
Questions?
Natural Infection Vs Immunization
Full transcript