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Technological and Cultural Advances of the Mauryan and Gupta
Transcript of Technological and Cultural Advances of the Mauryan and Gupta
* Religions: Hinduism, Jainism, and Buddhism, all were practiced in India, though HINDUISM was the main religion at the time.
* Due to the philosophy of AHIMSA, or the respect for every living thing, internal conflict and crime decreased and prosperity and law enforcement improved.
* Gupta Architecture of STUPAS, stone pillars carved with prayers to various gods, eventually gave way to Chinese culture, and encouraged the building style of the PAGOTA.
* MATH, in which the Indian Numeral System, which was normally considered ARABIC, replaced the Roman and Decimal systems. This same number system is still used today.
* The concept of ZERO, INFINITY, and the decimal system based on the number 10 also were advances in arithmetic of this time.
* ASTRONOMY - Solar and Lunar eclipses were studied, and the discovery that Earth is round and rotates on its own axis is attributed to Aryabhata. Also, he made calculations of the solar year, and that the moon and planets shine by reflected sunlight. The force of gravity these advances spread throughout India when people discussed trade.
* MEDICINE: herbal remedies to treat illness, plastic surgery, vaccinations, Indian doctors had medical instruments to perform operations, bone setting and skin grafting all took place during this time.
Some final contributions
GAMES: the development of what we have come to know as CHESS, originally began as CATURANGA. The four military divisions (Infantry, Calvary, Elephants and Chariotry) were represented as pieces that are now known as the pawn, the knight, the bishop and the rook.
GOVERNMENT: The KING was at the top of the ruling hierarchy. Territories were divided into provinces, and villages had separate politics and freedom.
PHILOSOPHY: The principle of MOKSHA (salvation), or LIfe of the Spirit, was practiced and taught. This leads us to the important influences of Chinese thinkers in life after the Mauryan and Gupta Empires in India.
Influence of Chinese Thinkers
What is a
* When a time period is at its peak in society.
* Any history of great peace, prosperity, and happiness.
* A time of innocence
Why did the Gupta Empire become powerful?
Samudra Gupta ruled for 45 years as a military leader.
Kumara Gupta maintained peace in India and prosperity reigned until worldwide invasions began.
Gupta kings were autocrats (servants to their subjects) and let people explore wealth and business.
Literature, Architecture, and Math helped cause a revival of the intellect in India, which helped to expand territory
The decimal system and the concept of zero were developed at this time.
The study of astronomy and medicine were developed, especially the use of herbal remedies and vaccines.
The Gupta Empire was considered the Golden Age of India
November 3, 2014
Technological and Cultural Advances of the Mauryan and Gupta Empires
What improvements did Ashoka sponsor?
* In 274 B.C, a new Empire was presented to him.
* He was a feared ruler, but became a Buddhist and an advocate of mercy and protection of all living things.
* Created laws to protect wildlife, hunting, and branding
* Allowed prisoners to one day of outside freedom a year.
* Treated subjects equally.
* Was considered the greatest Buddhist king
Cultural Contributions of the Mauryan and Gupta Empires
* The Mauryan Dynasty contributed administration, military, espionage/spy system for security.
* Military made of 600,000 infantry, 30,000 calvary, and 9,000 war elephants, which helped secure the empire.
* Farmers were freed from taxes/crop collection, leading to economic growth.
* A single currency was developed to make trade more successful, and Political unity and peace were created by the expansion of India's internal trade.
* Main exports in trade were silk, textiles, spices, and exotic foods.
* Roads, waterways, canals, hospitals, and rest-houses enabled growth of Indian trade empire.
Chinese culture stresses SOCIAL rather than INDIVIDUAL life.
Confucianism (The study of Confucius' teachings) enforced the relationship between members of the family or between kings and their subjects.
Confucius was considered China's greatest thinker/teacher. His ideas still influence Chinese thinkers today. He never held a public office, but still advised others during his life. Proper conduct of virtuous life and humanity, can be learned from studying history and classics.
Animism and ancestor worship were part of the Shang Dynasty.
In the Chou dynasty, The Mandate of Heaven, the approval of the gods to govern, was a point of influence.
Ch'in dynasty - divided territories up into military districts, governed by a connection to central government.
Philosophy of legalism: people are evil and selfish at heart, and needed to have control over them with strict laws.
Tang and Song Dynasties:
Golden Age of Literature & the Arts
* Printing, The Magnetic Compass and Gunpowder were important inventions during this time frame.
* China's great ancestor, Li Shimin, also known as Tang Taizong, restored China's Emperial throne after killing his own family members. His military campaigns extended territory to Manchuria, Vietnam, and to the Aral sea.
* Law codes established by Tang Taizong became models for all east Asia
* Wu Zhao, at age 13, became a secondary wife to the Emperor, and eventually became Empress, ruling China for many years on her husband's behalf. She helped build and expand China.
* Science and Technology advancements were made with gunpowder and a movable block, or printer, to make lines of words duplicate. Printers USED to be carved into one large block. Gunpowder enabled explosives to be made, like bombs, grenades, rockets and cannons
Porcelain, the mechanical clock, and the use of the magnetic compass for sailing were invented during this time. Negative numbers and algebra spread from China to other countries.
Poetry and Art
Li Bo wrote about life's pleasures.
Tu Fu praised orderliness and Confucian virtues.
Tu Fu was also a critical war writer, speaking from experience, having been captured by rebels.
Black ink was the favorite paint for Daoist artists since it represented 10 colors all at once.
Women were physically crippled by having their feet bound, breaking the arch of the foot and curling toes downward creating "lily foot". This disability kept women dependent on men for social and economic reasons.
Marco Polo's Reaction to China's Cities
* Italian, born in Venice into merchant family.
* Observant of cultures, studied China for 17 years.
* Wrote a memoir of his travels, and it became the guide to eastern civilizations for many Europeans.
* 200 years after Marco Polo's travels and memoir, Christopher Columbus, another Italian, traveled by sea to the Indies, using the memoir as a guide.
* Cities were measured by their roads, bridges, and armies.