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US History - 8.1 - 8.2 - 8.3 - 8.4 - Reforming American Society

USH 8.1 through 8.4


on 14 October 2013

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Transcript of US History - 8.1 - 8.2 - 8.3 - 8.4 - Reforming American Society

Chapter 8 Reforming American Society
Mill towns owned by people like, Lowell used “mill girls”
1. The Lowell Mill
Hired women because they were cheaper
They paid well for women’s work
2. Conditions
Work began at 5 AM
Worked at the mill from 7 to 7
Heat, darkness, and poor ventilation
3. Strikes at Lowell
800 girls went on strike in 1834
After a 15% wage cut
Most returned after public criticisms of Lowell
Leaders were fired
Many others followed
B. Farm Worker to Factory Worker
3. Education
Emma Willard opened one the first rigorous schools for girls in 1821
Mount Holyoke, 1837 for women
4. Health Reform
Elizabeth Blackwell, Geneva College
1st female doctor
Few women bathed or exercised
Many even fought against restrictive clothing
Amelia Bloomer wore loose-fitting pants
B. Women Mobilize Reform cont.
1. Women Abolitionists
Sarah and Angelina Grimke
Used their fortune to free slaves
2. Working for Temperance
Lyman Beecher
Blamed for poverty, crime, broken homes, and insanity
Temperance movement included many women
1851, Maine became dry
B. Women Mobilize Reform
1. Pro-Slavery Defenses
Some used the Bible to justify it
Some stated slavery benefited blacks
Treated better than industrial workers of the North
Eventually: Social Darwinism defending it
C. Slave Owners Defend Slavery
2. Slave Codes and Resistance to Slavery
Laws to control slaves
No assemblies or education
Needed a pass to leave their master’s property
Nat Turner led a major rebellion in 1831
Killed 55 whites
Armed rebellions were rare
Resisted in other ways
Many escaped via the Underground Railroad
Runaways were whipped, chained, and sometimes killed
B. Life Under Slavery cont.
1. Slave Cabins, Family Life, Culture, and Christianity
Hardship and misery
No money, little chance for freedom
Few comforts
Families often torn apart
Extended families helped raise kids
Fused African and American elements for culture
After 1808, no foreign slaves
Held onto music, dance, folk stories, and clothes
Many accepted Christianity
Spirituals used to communicate secretly
B. Life Under Slavery
2. African American Abolitionists
Major role in the movement
Personal experiences
David Walker
Sojourner Truth
3. Frederick Douglass
Slave in MD, taught himself to read and write, escaped
Powerful speaker
Edited the North Star
Traveled abroad, returned to fight slavery at its source
A. Abolitionists cont.
Many formed utopian communities
Tried to create perfect places
Tried religious and social reform
New Harmony, IN
Few lasted very long
1. The Shakers
Founded by Ann Lee
Shared their goods
No fighting, ever
They vowed to never get married or have kids
Had to adopt kids
Had 6,000 members in 1840s
Seven left in 1999
C. Ideal Communities
American styles emerge
1. Transcendentalists
Relationship between humans and nature
Lived simple lives
Ralph Waldo Emerson, Margaret Fuller, and Henry David Thoreau
Walden and civil disobedience
Longfellow, Whitman, Dickinson, and Beecher Stowe
B. Transcendentalism and Reforms
3. National Trades’ Union
Journeyman of specific trades tried to form the first unions
Carpentry, shoemaking, weaving, printing, and comb making
Tried to form the National Trades’ Union in 1837
4. Court Backs Strikers
1842 Massachusetts case said workers could strike
Still, membership was low before the Civil War
C. Workers Seek Better Conditions
1. Immigration Increases
Most came from Germany and Ireland
3 million came between 1845-1854
2. A Second Wave
The Great Potato Famine in the 1840s
1 million died
Another million came to America
Discriminated against because they were Catholic
Lived in neighborhoods in eastern cities
Took the lowest paying jobs
C. Workers Seek Better Conditions
A. Industry Changes Work
Most clothing was produced at home before industry
1. Rural Manufacturing
Cottage industry
People worked out of their homes at their own pace
2. Early Factories
Textiles established the first factories
Artisans lost jobs to machine and unskilled workers
End of the master, apprentice, and journeyman era of some industries
IV. The Changing Workplace
Abolitionists also worked for women’s rights
Sojourner Truth
Lucretia Mott and Elizabeth Cady Stanton
1. The Seneca Falls Convention
1848, 200 women and 40 men pledged to work for
2. The Movement Grows
Susan B. Anthony also fought for coeducation and temperance
Wyoming allowed women to vote in 1890
C. Women’s Rights Movement Emerges
A. Women’s Roles in the mid-1800s
Limited options for women
Cult of domesticity
Wife and mother duties
Very few worked outside the workplace
No voting rights and could not serve on juries
Still paid taxes
Their property became their husband’s when they married
III. Women and Reform
A. Abolitionists Speak Out
Early Efforts to End Slavery
Quakers, Benjamin Lundy: gradual approach to end it
American Colonization Society
Free slaves and send them back to Africa
Founded Liberia, 1847
Most did not want to go
1. William Lloyd Garrison
Founded The Liberator, 1831
“I will not retreat a single inch-AND I WILL BE HEARD.”
Gather followers
II. Slavery and Abolition
1. Reforming Asylums and Prisons
Dorothea Dix helped get rid of many physical punishments and isolation
2. Improving Education
Horace Mann
Improved schools
1850s, most states:
School is free
Supported by taxes
Teachers are trained
Attendance is required
Girls received less, didn’t study men’s subjects
Few schools: west or for blacks
D. Schools and Prisons Reform
A. 2nd Great Awakening
Charles Finney, emotional speaker
Swept the nation after 1790
Insisted people could improve themselves and society
1. Revivalism
20,000 often gathered at outdoor camps
4 or 5 day festivals
2. The African-American Church
Brought Christianity to slaves
Baptist and Methodists churches were open to everyone
Offered a promise of freedom
I. Religion Sparks Reform
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