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Second Language Acquisition and Learning

What challenges do ELLs face when acquiring a second language? How can teachers best support them in the classroom?

Natalie Santos

on 21 October 2016

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Transcript of Second Language Acquisition and Learning

Transfer Hypothesis

Second Language Acquisition and Learning
How to address ELLs' learning challenges in the classroom

Monitor Hypothesis

The Affective Filter
Learners acquire second languages best when they feel relaxed, engaged, and curious (Krashen, 1981).
Resources for Teachers
Games and activities to lower the affective filter:
Authentic texts/materials:
Menus, movie hunts, map activities

Conditions for application
of the Monitor
1. We must know the rule.

2. We must be thinking about the correctness of our language use.

3. We must have time.
Applying the Monitor hypothesis in the classroom.
Types of Transfer
Positive Transfer:
is something learned at one time facilitates learning or performance at a later time.
Factors Affecting Transfer
Cross - Language Transfer
Is a skill that is still developing.
What is the Input Hypothesis
*Humans acquire language by:
Understanding messages or receiving comprehensible input
Understanding language that contains structure/maybe be a little "beyond" the learner to continue progress in language development
when communication/input is understood, (i+1) will provide automatically
Production ability emerges. It's not taught directly (Krashen, 1981)
Oral/written- Provide less difficult Vocab . Provide Definitions, paraphrase, and elaborate.

Interaction- Allowing kids to communicate and ask teachers questions. Conversation allows negotiation for comprehension.

Modified out- combination of interacting and negotiating as learner's output is another learners input (Bahrani, Soltani, 2012).

Natalie Santos
Jazmin Cardoso
Created by:
The Affective Filter
Negative Transfer:
is something learned at one time interferes with learning or performance at a later time.
Specific Transfer:
is instance of transfer in which the original learning task and the transfer
overlap in content.
(e.g., numbers in French and Spanish:
un, uno
deux, dos, etc.)
General Transfer:
is instance of transfer in which the original learning task and the transfer task are different in content.

Formal Discipline:

is view of transfer of one's ability to learn other, unrelated things.
Meaningful learning promotes better transfer than rote learning.
Both positive and negative transfer are more common when a new situation is similar-or least appears to be similar.
Principles and theories are more easily transferred than discrete facts.
Transfer is more common when information and skills are perceived as being relevant to diverse disciplines and real-world situations.
Numerous and varied opportunities for practice increase the probability of transfer.
Transfer increases when the cultural environment encourages and expects transfer.
Danielle De Lanoy
affective filter
is a barrier that prevents students from acquiring a second language. Affective variables like motivation, self-confidence, and anxiety play a role in how well a student can receive
, or spoken/written messages, and acquire the target language (Krashen, 1981).
(ability to speak)
Affective filter is triggered by:
high anxiety
low self-esteem
low motivation
Lowering the Affective Filter
ACTFL function”, “context” and “communication strategies” ACTFL (2012). ACTFL Performance Descriptors for Language Learners. Retrieved from http://www.actfl.org/publications/guidelines-and-manuals/actfl-performance-descriptors-language-learners

ESL Kids Games. (n.d.). Retrieved July 8, 2016, from http://eslkidsgames.com

Bahrani, T., & Soltani, R. (2012, November 3). Language Input and Second Language Acquisition. Journal of Education and Practice, 3(3), ser., 1-5. Retrieved July 6, 2016.

Bilash, O. (2009, May 9). . Retrieved July 10, 2016, from http://www.educ.ualberta.ca/staff/olenka.bilash/best of bilash/krashen.html

Cummins, J. (1979). Linguistic interdependence and the educational development of bilingual children. Los Angeles: National Dissemination and Assessment Center, California State University.

Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Retrieved July 10, 2016, from https://nces.ed.gov/fastfacts/display.asp?id=96

Kelly, C., Kelly, L., Offner, M., & Vorland, B. (2002, November). Effective Ways to Use Authentic Materials with ESL/EFL Students. The Internet TESL Journal, 8(11). Retrieved from http://iteslj.org/Techniques/Kelly-Authentic.html

Krashen, S. D. (1981). Second language acquisition and second language learning. Oxford:
Pergamon Press.

Krashen S. D. (2003) Explorations in Language Acquisition and Use, The Taipei Lectures, Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann

Price, D. (n.d.). Game-like Activities to Practice ESL Listening, Speaking ... Retrieved July 8, 2016, from https://www.quia.com/files/quia/users/donnapm/Games-handout-Rayton2-11FINAL.pdf

Stephen Krashen on Language Acquisition:
Part 1: Part 2:

Ormrod, J.E., (2014) Educational Psychology: Developing Learners (8th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson

Types of input
How it works:
- modified or simplified before it is given (oral/written).
* Interactionally Modified
-changes to the target structures or lexicons in conversation
*Modified input
- occurs as a response to comprehensible input through interaction (Bahrani, Soltani, 2012)
I going
home now.
Wait, this is the present progressive tense, so it needs a helping verb.
going home now.
Conscious learning has only one function:
acting as a ‘monitor’ or editor of our language use.
The Monitor Hypothesis
Input in the Classroom
Note: you should hear a voice-over for all the Monitor Hypothesis slides.

Eyby Osorio-Hernandez
Language learning for your students will be most effective when:
the affective filter is low (create a low-anxiety environment).
formal language instruction is comparatively limited.
students are provided with an engaging context for natural language use.
their prior language knowledge is utilized.
There are over 4.4 million K-12 English Language Learners in the United States, over 9% of all students, a number that grows every year. This presentation draws on the ideas of two theorists, Steven Krashen and Jim Cummins, to offer suggestions on how to teach these students, and any other students studying another language.

Theories discussed here:
1. Affective Filter
2. Monitor Hypothesis
3. Input Hypothesis
4. Language
Do: Don't:
- Model speech

- Focus on meaning

- Allow a silent period

- Incorporate fun
games and activities

- Utilize authentic
texts that are
relevant to students'

- Correct every little mistake

- Force students to speak

- Allow students to tease their
Sample game: Stop the Bus
(Cummins, 1979)(Ormrod, 2014)
Full transcript