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ICONIC ARCHITECTURE : IDENTITY OF TIME, PLACE AND PEOPLE

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Gayathri Rajendran

on 23 October 2014

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Transcript of ICONIC ARCHITECTURE : IDENTITY OF TIME, PLACE AND PEOPLE

ICONIC ARCHITECTURE
IDENTITY OF
TIME
PLACE
PEOPLE
GAYATHRI MR(S9 B.ARCH) & Ar. JINOJ M
Department of Architecture,
College of Engineering Trivandrum
to study the notion of an "ICON" in architecture and define what really makes a building iconic in architecture
THIRUVANANTHAPURAM


The name of the city is derived from
"Thiru - Anantha - puram" means
"The town of Lord Anantha".


South Kerala, particularly Thiruvananthapuram, had a political and cultural history in the early past which was in some respects independent from that of the rest of Kerala.
AYS till 10 th century
Venad kings
1684 British
The East India Company tried to have control at Anchuthengu on the sea coast about 32 km's north of Thiruvananthapuram city
Donation of the Kingdom to the Temple was known as Thripadidaanam.
Marthanda Varma( 1729- 1758)
1904
1834
English education
Legislative Council
Medical system
Postal system
INDIAN NATIONAL CONGRESS
1947 INDEPENDENT INDIA
The city transformed into

administrative hub of Kerala governement.
Medical and Educational instituitions
Development of Kazhakootam area into IT hub employing around 40,000 people in 300 companies.
1. SREE PADMANABHASWAMY TEMPLE
ARCHITECTURAL
CHARACTER
LOCATION
HISTORIC VALUE
VISIBILITY AND
VIEWS
GOPURAM
SCALE
ORNAMENTATION
Excellent example of temple architecture in Kerala with the sequence of a series of ascending steps and platforms,
Dravidian Gopuram and Kerala style nada
in the cardinal directions.
The most important feature of the temple structure is the construction
technique using a dimensional standardization.
“The nucleus of the temple plan is the cell containing the shrine with the width of the cell as the basic module of the dimensional system. This proportional system has ensured uniformity in architectural style irrespective of geographical distribution and scale of construction.”
The other major features of the temple
Gopuram
Mandapas
Pillared Corridors
Dwaja Stamba or Flagstaff
Padmatheertham

Aerial view of the Sri Padmanabhaswamy temple Complex.
(Source : Frontline, 2014)
Dravidian style Gopuram
(Source : Author)
Traditional Kerala architecture of neighbouring structures
(Source: Author)
North nada of the temple
(Source : Harikrishnan,Archana. 2012)
• The temple-complex is certainly extensive contained as it is within an area of seven acres.
• A broad flight of long stone-flagged steps lead to the eastern entrance which is crowned with a seven tiered gopuram explicitly decorated with sculptures and reliefs.
• The temple is on an elevated base of 1.8 – 2 metres.

Layout of the temple complex
Source : Indiatoday, 2011
Built in granite and brick, this tower is about 33m in height and has seven stories with window light-openings in the centre of each of them.

Underneath the gopuram is the gateway leading to the principal temple well protected by a number of massive doors and guarded by sentries

Vanchi-shaped structure atop the tower is unique

Side view of Gopuram's Vanchi shaped crown
(Source : The Hindu, 2014)
Entrance flight of steps
(Source : author)
Intricate detailing of Gopuram
Source : sruthy, 2013
Intricate detailing of Stone sculpted crown
Source : Joseph, 2011
Intricate detailing of Gopuram (Source : Author)
INTRICATELY CARVED
SCULPTURES
The temple is located in the city core in East Fort. The temple overlooks the city's main market, jewellery malls and city bus terminus in the east, and is surrounded by narrow streets crammed with residential buildings, supermarkets, shops, offices, wedding halls and smaller temples on all the other sides.
The history of Sree Padmanabhaswamy Temple dates back to 8th Century. References to the temple can be found in the Divya Prabandha canon of literature written by Tamil Alwar.

It is believed that Sree Padmanabhaswamy Temple and its properties were maintained by Ettuveetil Pillamar – the eight powerful Nair feudal lords of ancient Travancore.

Later His Royal Highness Sree Marthanda Varma Anizham Thirunal suppressed the Ettuveetil Pillais and his cousins and took over the control of the temple.

Marthanda Varma has done a major renovation to the temple and it is said that the current structure of Padmanabhaswamy temple was made by the King.

SURVEY ANALYSIS
Among the survey conducted with 43 tourists, 69 residents of the city, 68 Non – Residents studying or working in and around Trivandrum and 20 architects, and Age-Groups 10-20,20-30,30-50,50 and above, the following result was generated.
2. St. JOSEPH'S METROPOLITAN CATHEDRAL, PALAYAM
ARCHITECTURAL
CHARACTER
LOCATION
HISTORIC VALUE
VISIBILITY AND
VIEWS
SCALE
ORNAMENTATION
View of St. Joseph's Metropolitan Cathedral, Palayam
(Source : Varun, 2014)

St. Joseph's Metropolitan Cathedral, also known as Palayam Palli is the Roman Catholic cathedral of the Archdiocese of Trivandrum.

The first church was built here in 1873. The church was extended in the manner of a cross in 1912.

The final stage of extension, including the Gothic style facade and the bell-tower was completed in 1927.
Built for the Catholic military men and Catholic familes of Travancore

The first church was built here in 1873. The church was extended in the manner of a cross in 1912. The final stage of extension, including the Gothic style facade and the bell-tower was completed in 1927.
Gothic architecture in the facade : British Influence
• The main iconic nature of the building is its Golden statue of Jesus which can be seen from a long distance.
• It can be seen from all the three major approach roads: Mg Road, behind Chandrashekaran Nair Stadium and Bakery Junction




A : MG ROAD
B : Behind Chandrashekaran Nair Stadium
C : Bakery junction

Figure : Map of Palayam area
Source: Google Mp images, 2014
View of church from University College
Source : Author
White in colour with intricate vertical spires.
Rose window and mullions arches,
a statue of St. Joseph with the child Jesus in the middle of the facade and a statue of Jesus with hands raised atop the tower.
Interior of Church
Source : Author
Detailing on front facede
Source : Author
The church has a monumental scale which demarcates it from the neighbourhood and draws attention
Approximate height 20m
Among the survey conducted with 43 tourists, 69 residents of the city, 68 Non – Residents studying or working in and around Trivandrum and 20 architects, and Age-Groups 10-20,20-30,30-50,50 and above, the following result was generated.
SURVEY ANALYSIS
3.THE KERALA GOVERNMENT
SECRETARIAT

ARCHITECTURAL
CHARACTER
LOCATION
HISTORIC VALUE
VISIBILITY AND
VIEWS
ORNAMENTATION
The Secretariat complex was originally constructed as Durbar Hall for Travancore Kingdom.
Over 140 years old, the building's foundation stone was laid by His Highness Ayilyam Thirunal, the Maharaja of Travancore in 1865 and was completed in 1869.
It was designed and built under Barton, the then chief engineer of Travancore and incorporates elements of Roman and Dutch architecture.
The construction was supervised by the then Dewan, T. Madhava Rao, whose statue now stands across the road opposite the building.
Building has Dutch and Roman influences.
The long Horizontal facade with repeating windows and columns with a central porch built in Roman style gives the facade of the building a rhythmic iconicity.

Statue of Veluthambi Dalava in the landscaped garden

• The white colour has a power which enhances the building in its green landscape

• The central clock tower and the Indian flag gives it the majesty.

• Symmetrical layout of long horizontal massing.

The neighbourhood buildings are taller than the structure and rather than height it is the horizontality that demarcates it.
4.THE KERALALEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY /
NIYAMASABHA MANDIRAM

ARCHITECTURAL
CHARACTER
LOCATION
HISTORIC VALUE
VISIBILITY AND
VIEWS
GOPURAM
SCALE
ORNAMENTATION
Excellent example of temple architecture in Kerala with the sequence of a series of ascending steps and platforms,
Dravidian Gopuram and Kerala style nada
in the cardinal directions.
The most important feature of the temple structure is the construction
technique using a dimensional standardization.
“The nucleus of the temple plan is the cell containing the shrine with the width of the cell as the basic module of the dimensional system. This proportional system has ensured uniformity in architectural style irrespective of geographical distribution and scale of construction.”
The other major features of the temple
Gopuram
Mandapas
Pillared Corridors
Dwaja Stamba or Flagstaff
Padmatheertham

Dravidian style Gopuram
(Source : Author)
Traditional Kerala architecture of neighbouring structures
(Source: Author)
North nada of the temple
(Source : Harikrishnan,Archana. 2012)
• The temple-complex is certainly extensive contained as it is within an area of seven acres.
• A broad flight of long stone-flagged steps lead to the eastern entrance which is crowned with a seven tiered gopuram explicitly decorated with sculptures and reliefs.
• The temple is on an elevated base of 1.8 – 2 metres.

Layout of the temple complex
Source : Indiatoday, 2011
Built in granite and brick, this tower is about 33m in height and has seven stories with window light-openings in the centre of each of them.

Underneath the gopuram is the gateway leading to the principal temple well protected by a number of massive doors and guarded by sentries

Vanchi-shaped structure atop the tower is unique

Side view of Gopuram's Vanchi shaped crown
(Source : The Hindu, 2014)
Entrance flight of steps
(Source : author)
Intricate detailing of Gopuram
Source : sruthy, 2013
Intricate detailing of Stone sculpted crown
Source : Joseph, 2011
Intricate detailing of Gopuram (Source : Author)
INTRICATELY CARVED
SCULPTURES
The temple is located in the city core in East Fort. The temple overlooks the city's main market, jewellery malls and city bus terminus in the east, and is surrounded by narrow streets crammed with residential buildings, supermarkets, shops, offices, wedding halls and smaller temples on all the other sides.
The history of Sree Padmanabhaswamy Temple dates back to 8th Century. References to the temple can be found in the Divya Prabandha canon of literature written by Tamil Alwar.

It is believed that Sree Padmanabhaswamy Temple and its properties were maintained by Ettuveetil Pillamar – the eight powerful Nair feudal lords of ancient Travancore.

Later His Royal Highness Sree Marthanda Varma Anizham Thirunal suppressed the Ettuveetil Pillais and his cousins and took over the control of the temple.

Marthanda Varma has done a major renovation to the temple and it is said that the current structure of Padmanabhaswamy temple was made by the King.

The Niyamasabha Mandiram, located in Thiruvananthapuram, is the seat of the Kerala State Legislative Assembly or the Niyamasabha.
Built primarily in the classical style of Architecture of Kerala, with strong influences of many contemporary styles, it is a structure with grand staircase, gardens, water bodies and a large Central Assembly Hall.
The building was completed in 1998 and is on an 11 acre site in Palalayam.
DLF BUILDING GURGAON
Source : Onar Am,
"free state initiatives",
2011
Major concerns :
The Bilbao Effect
Design Competitions
Stararchitecture
Novelty Architecture
Globabalisation
Placenessness
Place marketing


Source : Vivek Venugopal, 2014.
Dubai skyline
(Source : Oceanbusiness partners, 2013)
Which buildng to look at ??
New York, Skyline
(Source : wirednewyork.com. 2014)


OBJECTIVE :
• Critically compare and analyse buildings which became icons over the period of time and buildings which are built intentionally to be known as icons

• Critically analyse the impact of both on time, place and people and find out whether the current trend is significant or not.

• Analyse the type of building people identify as icons and the factors they consider for it to be iconic.


List out the iconic buildings in the city of Trivandrum
Conduct a survey among different groups of people in the city : residents, non-residents, tourists, architects
Conduct a survey among different groups of people in the city : age groups
Conduct a survey among different age groups of people in the city
Analyse in detail the features which made these buildings iconic
Overlap the survey results with the study and rate the buildings according to their iconicity
Analyse the features of most iconic buildings and draw inferences
Arrive at definition for iconic buildings in today's context
LITERATURE
REVIEW

EXISTING NOTIONS OF ICONIC ARCHITECTURE
HIGH RISE ICONS
CONCLUSION

The term “iconicity” in architecture is
highly subjective and cannot be restricted to a definition statement.
But it is definitely possible to explore various attributes that contribute to iconicity. These may be particular for each building. These factors may be listed down as :
• Architectural character
• Historic value
• Strong architectural philosophy
• Symbolic value
• Location of the building
• Visibility, views and vistas
• Form Ornamentation
• Height
• Materials and colour
• Scale
• Ornamentation
• Height
• Materials and colour



But successful icons are those which induce life and spontaneous participation of its users.

Buildings can create memories in the mind only when people are able to relate to it, that is when the architecture leaves a part for its visitors to interpret.

Thus successful icons are born when the when the people integrates it into their lives and interpret it in their own way.

For this the building
should make people feel empowered,important and excited
to be in the places they inhabit.

Buildings
created out of conscious efforts
to become icons fail as
temporary icons
and remain in impermanence.

Thus iconicity need not necessarily be a global process. It is a true representation of its time, people and place.
Thus an architectural icon is not an entity; it is a phenomenon.

THANK YOU
References :

• Jencks, C., 2005. The Iconic Building – The Power of Enigma. New York, NY: Rizzoli.

• Jencks, C., 1978. The Language of Post-Modern Architecture. London: Academy Editions.

• Shashibooshan, M.G, “SURRENDER – Sree Padmanabha Swamy Temple Renovation Souvenir “.2002.

• Shashibooshan, M.G, “The Splendour of Padmanabha Swami Temple “.
http://www.swathithirunal.in/articles/sasibusion.html

• Mahmoud,Ahmed. Iconic Architecture contribution to Publicizing Cities.Web.2012
http://www.academia.edu/3598544/Iconic_Architecture_contibution_to_Publicizing_Cities

• Pandya,Yatin.Iconic architecture versus architecture as icons.Web.3 October 2010.

http://www.dnaindia.com/analysis/column-iconic-architecture-versus-architecture-as-icons



4.INDIAN COFFEE HOUSE, THAMPANOOR
ARCHITECTURAL
CHARACTER
LOCATION
FORM
ORNAMENTATION
View of Indian Coffee House Thampanoor
(Source : Frontline, 2014)
Indian Coffee House is one of the prominent landmarks of Thampanoor area of Trivandrum, designed by Architect Laurie Baker. This building, courtesy of its unusual design has become one of the most recognisable structures in Trivandrum.
Ar. Laurie Bakers's unconventional,simple and cost effective masonry building.
It is located on the National highway 47 and a major movement route in Trivandrum with the Trivandrum Central Railway station, KSRTC Central Bus Terminal, major Movie theatres of the district.
( Sree Visakh, Sree Kumar etc.)

• The form is made
visually dominant
by its clearly differentiated shape from the surrounding buildings.

• The entire building is conceived as a
continuous spiral ramp, with a central circular service core
and with dining spaces provided on the outer side
.
• The form of the building is thus unconventional and bears
Baker’s trademark jallis
to let in light & ventilation.

• The building is
well proportioned, a cylindrical brick-red spiral continuing for a couple of floors
and then terminating in a smaller cylindrical volume on top, giving a very unsymmetrical balance to the whole structure

Image Source :architecture student's corner,
Kerala Architecture, spaces and places)
JALLI PATTERNS
The walls are made of exposed brickwork which has been painted over – white on the inner side & brick-red on the exterior.
Among the survey conducted with 43 tourists, 69 residents of the city, 68 Non – Residents studying or working in and around Trivandrum and 20 architects, and Age-Groups 10-20,20-30,30-50,50 and above, the following result was generated.
SURVEY ANALYSIS
AIM :
To study the notion of an icon in architecture and define what really makes a building iconic in architecture
METHODOLOGY
SCOPE OF THE STUDY

Often associated with irrelevant, ostentatious design rather than architecture that will stand as the test of time, the term iconic has become polluted
.

"WHAT ONCE USED TO BE A COMPLIMENT IS TURNING INTO A CURSE "

So there is an urgent need to rethink about the meaning of ICONICITY

LIMITATIONS

Since any unique creation can be iconic, the subject is very vast.So the study is limited to iconic nature of built form.

Economic factors, transcapitalist notions of iconicity and varied aspects of globalisation are studied only on a primary level and not dealt in detail.

COCHIN MARINE DRIVE SKYLINE
(Source : Upload, Wikipedia.org)
THRISSUR skyline
(Source : Upload, Wikipedia.org)
SCALE
Full transcript