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Lecture 2 - Booting the Raspberry Pi

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iCode Inc.

on 26 September 2018

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Transcript of Lecture 2 - Booting the Raspberry Pi

What is an OS?
OS is a collection of software that
Manages computer hardware like screens,Wifi module,USB ports,microphone...

Manages software resources
Pi primarily runs on UNIX OS
Installing Raspbian on the Pi
let's see how to install Raspbian OS on the Pi.
What is an SD Card?
Booting Pi for the first time using NOOBS
Booting the Raspberry Pi
Common Operating Systems
An Overview...
Big topic
A MUST Operating System
Has been here since 1960.
An OS is an interface between the user of a computer and the computer hardware.
Unix is much like an old Grandfather who is no longer alive, but
has many sons and daughters who are alive and are different in
their own unique ways.
For example...
UNIX
Android
Linux
based on
based on
Free Open Source OS - UNIX
that means its free!
Open Source means that all the code for the OS is free to read, contribute, and change.
What about Windows?
costs money
cannot see the code either
Advantage:
anyone can take the code and create a special adaptation.
example - Android, Mac OS X, iOS
UNIX Command Line
GUI
Command Line
Buttons,sliders,drop-downs
typing commands in
the command prompt"
"Power users"
use Command Line instead of GUI.
Challenge:
Knowing what the commands do and memorizing them.
Advantage:
Powerful
UNIX contains both.
Advantage of UNIX based OS : ability to run commands
Vs
The Raspberry Pi can run many Operating Systems.
Raspbian is currently the most popular OS for the Pi.
Latest: Windows 10 is available for Raspberry Pi.
For this, we use a "bootloader " called NOOBS(
N
ew
O
ut
O
f the
B
ox
S
oftware)
NOOBS allows us to boot up the Pi and gives us simple options so we don't have to deal with so many details to install the Raspbian.
"Booting up"
comes from the term
"pulling yourself up from your bootstraps"
which means you are a self-starter.For OSes it means the Operating System is loaded from scratch and the computer is ready.
Secure Digital
Card.
The card comes in different:
sizes
memory
Remember this??
microSD card for the Pi2
Your saved file, the new app you built and even the OS are all saved on this card.
It holds all the non-volatile memory for the Pi.
are those memory which will still be there even after the Pi is powered off.
min size for the Pi is 4GB
Step 1
Format the SD Card
Note: the SD card must be over 4 GB.
1. Go to this website and download the formatter:
https://www.sdcard.org/downloads/index.html
2. Once downloaded, install it to your computer.
3. Put the SD card into the slot on the computer and use the SD formatter application to format it.
Step 2
Step 3
Download the NOOBS bootloader and copy it to the SD Card
1. Go to the following link and download NOOBS(ZIP file)
https://www.raspberrypi.org/downloads/noobs/
Insert the SD card into Pi2
Note:
1. Make sure Pi is turned off.
2. See that you have connected the keyboard,screen and the mouse to the Pi
1. Please see the note below and ensure these are done.
2. Now turn on the Pi2 and wait for the NOOBS to load.
(if the SD Card is new skip this step)
2. Copy the downloaded NOOBS onto the SD Card.
The first screen that appears.
Select Raspbian.
The progress screen
On the Raspberry Pi (running Raspbian), the default terminal application is
LXTerminal
. The application can be found on the Raspberry Pi desktop and when started will look something like this:
pi@raspberrypi ~ $
username
hostname
Lets try some commands and see what it does
1. pwd (present working directory)
shows something like this:
/home/pi.
2. ls
this command lists the contents of the directory that you are currently in (your present working directory).
3. cd (change directory)
In order to navigate to other directories the change directory command, cd, can be used.
Example : If you wanted to navigate to the python_games directory, you could either do
cd /home/pi/python_games
or just
cd python_games
(if you are currently in /home/pi).
cd ..
.. is the aliase for the parent directory.
e.g. if you were in /home/pi/python_games, cd .. would take you to /home/pi.
4. cp (copy)
makes a copy of a file and places it at the specified location.('copy-paste')
Example: cp file_new /home/other_user/ would copy the file 'file_new' from your home directory to that of the user 'other_user' (assuming you have permission to copy it there).
5. mv (move)
moves a file and places it at the specified location.('cut-paste')
Example: mv file_new /home/other_user/ would move the file 'file_new' from your home directory to that of the specified user.
6. rm (remove)
removes the specified file
Warning: Files deleted in this way are generally not restorable.
7. mkdir (make directory)
makes a new directory

Example: mkdir new_dir would create the directory new_dir in the present working directory.
8. cat
lists the contents of files.Can also be used to list the contents of multiple files
Example: cat some_file will display the contents of some_file.
cat *.txt will list the contents of all .txt files in the current directory.
Some useful Tips
If you are writing the name of a file or directory as part of a command then pressing tab will attempt to auto-complete the name of what you are typing.
Rather than type every command, the terminal allows you to scroll through previous commands that you've run by pressing the
up
or
down
keys on your keyboard.
Example: if you have a file in a directory called aLongFileName then pressing tab after typing 'a' will allow you to choose from all file and directory names beginning with a in the current directory, allowing you to choose aLongFileName.
HISTORY
AUTO-COMPLETE
FINDING OUT ABOUT A COMMAND
To find out more information about a particular command then you can run the man followed by the command you want to know more about .
Example: man ls
Ctrl + C -
This kills any command that's currently being run in the terminal.

ROOT USER / SUDO
The Linux operating system is a multi-user operating system which allows multiple users to login and use the computer. To protect the computer (and privacy of other users), users are restricted in what they can do.
There is a special user in Linux known as the
superuser
, which is usually given the username
root
.
The superuser has unrestricted access to the computer and can do almost anything.
SUDO
You will not normally log into to the computer as root, but can instead use the sudo command to provide access as the superuser. If you log into your Raspberry Pi as the
pi
user then you are logging in as a normal user. You can run commands as the root user by using the
sudo
command before the program you want to run.


Example: To be able to update the list of available software then you need to prefix the apt-get command command with sudo.
sudo apt-get update
When running commands as a superuser there is nothing to protect against mistakes that could damage the system. It is like disabling the safety guards on a machine. It makes it easier to access the insides, but the risk of damage is far greater. It is recommended that you only run commands as the superuser when required and to exit a superuser shell when it is no longer needed.
You can also run a superuser shell by using
sudo su
.
Be carefull!
Full transcript